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    Conclusion

    Module 9: National Security

    National security remains one of the most common justifications offered by states for limiting freedom of expression by journalists, bloggers, and media organs.  However, it has the potential to be used to quell dissent and cover up state abuses.  Increasingly, courts are limiting the scope of application of national security laws as they are often vague and drafted to circumvent constitutional checks and balances.  Activists, lawyers, and members of the media should, however, remain vigilant and test all national security-related laws for compliance with international law, including the Tshwane and Siracusa Principles.