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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Sir Dawda K. Jawara v The Gambia (2000)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights confirmed that in circumstances where it is effective and sufficient to redress the complaint, a domestic remedy may be available to a petitioner.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Gambia · Apr 2000

ECtHR Vindicates Hidden Camera’s Role in Watchdog Journalism

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Switzerland · Mar 2015

Ingabire Victorie Umuhoza v The Republic of Rwanda (2017)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights grappled with a violation of freedom of expression and held that laws which limit free speech must be legitimate, necessary and proportional.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Rwanda · Apr 2017

Stocker v Stocker (2019)

The United Kingdom Supreme Court created a new sub-category of the ‘reasonable reader’ of a social media post in analysing the intended meaning of a statement, rather than relying on a more traditional and formal understanding of language.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2019

Explaining the Issues: Internet Shutdowns

In our Explaining the Issues series, we explain legal issues faced by the media – this instalment covers internet shutdowns.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Oct 2020

Module de synthèse 4 : Vie privée et protection des données (Afrique subsaharienne)

Le droit à la vie privée prend de plus en plus d’importance avec l’augmentation des flux de données et la nécessité concomitante de protéger les informations personnelles.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Apr 2021

Ramos v Independent Media (Pty) Ltd (2021)

The Johannesburg High Court in South Africa held that an article published about a businesswoman was defamatory and ordered it be removed from all online and social media platforms in addition to the publication of an apology.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Arthur v Ghana Telecommunications Company (2021)

The High Court of Ghana ordered the National Communications Authority to stop collecting personal information from mobile phone subscribers and the government to delete data already collected within fourteen days.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Ghana · Nov 2022

Protección de los defensores del medio ambiente: Factsheet

Jurisprudencia relevante para la protección de los periodistas medioambientales Los periodistas medioambientales informan sobre temas importantes y delicados como la deforestación, la minería ilegal, la confiscación de tierras y la contaminación. Proporcionan al público información esencial al investigar y sacar a la luz actividades privadas y estatales que repercuten negativamente en el medio ambiente. Al…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Canada · Europe · Kenya · North America · South Africa · Zimbabwe · May 2024

United States v Alvarez (2012)

In the majority opinion of the United States Supreme Court, Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote that “[t]he remedy for speech that is false is speech that is true.  This is the ordinary course in a free society.”

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · US · Apr 2012