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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Thorgeir Thorgeirson v Iceland (1992)

The European Court of Human Rights stressed that the role of the mass media is of particular importance in realising the right to freedom of expression, due to their “public watchdog” role.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Europe · Iceland · Apr 1992

Trustco Group International Ltd and Others v Shikongo (2010)

The Namibian Supreme Court emphasised the importance of the defence of reasonable publication in protecting media freedoms.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Namibia · Apr 2010

Jankovskis v Lithuania (2017)

In relation to a prisoner who had been refused access to a website containing education-related information, the European Court of Human Rights upheld the applicant’s claim of a violation of the right to freedom of expression.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · Lithuania · Apr 2017

How Far Does the “Right to be Forgotten” Extend? Crucial Case Referred to Court of Justice of the European Union

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · France · Jul 2017

Mapping Digital Rights and Online Freedom of Expression in East, West, and Southern Africa

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Mar 2019

Summary Module 1: Key Principles of International Law and Freedom of Expression

Overview of the right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Delfi AS v Estonia (2013)

The European Court of Human Rights found that an online news portal was liable for offensive comments they allowed to be posted below one of their news articles.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Estonia · Europe · Apr 2013

Andare v Attorney General of Kenya (2015)

The High Court of Kenya emphasised that the state has a duty to demonstrate that cybercrimes laws are permissible in a free and democratic society, to establish the relationship between the limitation and its purpose, and to show that there were no less restrictive means to achieve the purpose intended.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Apr 2015

Photojournalism: Factsheet

What is photojournalism? Photojournalism is defined by Merriam-Webster dictionary as “journalism in which written copy is subordinate to pictorial usually photographic presentation of news stories or in which a high proportion of pictorial presentation is used.”  Photojournalism is a crucial aspect of modern reporting, and is becoming even more so in societies in which photography…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Keeping the channels open: reflections on the importance of freedom of expression online

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · May 2018