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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Jamii Media v the Attorney General of Tanzania and Other (2017)

The High Court of Tanzania ruled that, in some instances, the government’s request for a disclosure of user information by an internet intermediary may be justified and would not be declared to be unconstitutional.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · Tanzania · Apr 2017

Savva Terentyev v Russia (2018)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the imposition of a suspended sentence on an individual for posting a provocative comment online that criticized police abuse amounted to a violation of the right to freedom of expression.

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Asia · Russian Federation · Apr 2018

Democratic Party v Secretary-General and the Attorneys General of the Republic of Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi (2014)

The East African Court of Justice confirmed that once an applicant has shown an alleged violation of the EAC Treaty, the court must exercise its jurisdiction i.e., it does not have voluntary jurisdiction.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Burundi · Kenya · Rwanda · Uganda · Apr 2014

Inter-American Court of Human Rights Protects Freedom of Expression in Venezuelan Criminal Defamation Case

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · South America · Venezuela · Oct 2019

Emerging Trend: Intermediary Liability

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Summary Module 7: Cybercrimes

As access to the internet continues to grow, cybercrimes are becoming ever more prevalent. However, cybercrime laws can provide tools for the state to suppress dissent and the media.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Jan 2021

New York Times Co. v United States (1971)

The United States Supreme Court rejected a request for prior restraint on the basis that it may only be allowed in extreme circumstances, and that ‘security’ could not be provided by guarding state secrets at the expense of informed representative government.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · North America · US · Apr 1971

Bosasa Operation (Pty) Ltd v Basson and Another (2012)

The High Court of South Africa held that journalists are not required to reveal their sources, subject to certain exceptions.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · South Africa · Apr 2012

European Court of Human Rights Finds Hungary’s Refusal to Allow Journalist Access to Asylum Seekers’ Centre Interfered with Press Freedom

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Europe · Hungary · Oct 2019

Marshal Muchende on getting Zambia’s “false news” law struck down

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Zambia · Oct 2014