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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Sir Dawda K. Jawara v The Gambia (2000)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights confirmed that in circumstances where it is effective and sufficient to redress the complaint, a domestic remedy may be available to a petitioner.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Gambia · Apr 2000

ECtHR Vindicates Hidden Camera’s Role in Watchdog Journalism

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Switzerland · Mar 2015

Ingabire Victorie Umuhoza v The Republic of Rwanda (2017)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights grappled with a violation of freedom of expression and held that laws which limit free speech must be legitimate, necessary and proportional.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Rwanda · Apr 2017

Stocker v Stocker (2019)

The United Kingdom Supreme Court created a new sub-category of the ‘reasonable reader’ of a social media post in analysing the intended meaning of a statement, rather than relying on a more traditional and formal understanding of language.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2019

Summary Module 1: Key Principles of International Law and Freedom of Expression (sub-Saharan Africa)

Overview of the right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Module de synthèse 10 : Introduction au contentieux des droits numériques en Afrique (Afrique subsaharienne)

Le contentieux stratégique est un outil puissant pour faire progresser les droits numériques et il est de plus en plus utilisé de diverses manières différentes et innovantes.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Apr 2021

Attorney General v N.F. (2018)

The Court of Cassation of Tunis upheld the acquittal of a woman who had been charged with publishing false news threatening public order because her act of deleting the post had neutralised the intent required.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Tunisia · Nov 2022

Kimel v. Argentina (2008)

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that the Argentinian state’s conviction of a journalist for criticising a judicial investigation was an unnecessary and disproportionate violation of freedom of expression, and ordered the state to reform the criminal laws protecting honour and reputation.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Argentina · South America · Nov 2022

Advanced Module 6: Litigating Digital Rights in Africa (sub-Saharan Africa)

Provides an overview of key concepts and procedural requirements and the stages of litigation at various regional courts.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Jun 2024

United States v Alvarez (2012)

In the majority opinion of the United States Supreme Court, Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote that “[t]he remedy for speech that is false is speech that is true.  This is the ordinary course in a free society.”

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · US · Apr 2012