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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Társaság a Szabadságjogokért v Hungary (2009)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the right to freedom of expression included the right to access information under the control of public authorities.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · Hungary · Apr 2009

Peta v Minister of Law, Constitutional Affairs and Human Rights (2018)

The Constitutional Court of Lesotho struck down the provisions of the Penal Code relating to criminal defamation stating that they violated the right to freedom of expression as protected in the Lesotho Constitution.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Lesotho · Apr 2018

SERAC v Nigeria (1996)

Although this matter did not pertain directly to digital rights, the ACHPR demonstrated its willingness to deal with non-state actors, state obligations, and to engage with NGOs.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 1996

Media Defence Files Intervention at European Court Seeking to Protect Anonymity of Users Online

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Austria · Europe · Oct 2017

Preliminary Opinion from Court of Justice of the European Union in Google v CNIL case about the right to be forgotten affirms the need to protect freedom of expression

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · France · Jan 2019

Explaining the Issues: National Security

The reporting of stories relating to national security has been a concern for governments around the world for many years, but since 9/11 there has been a dramatic increase in the number of cases against journalists pursued in the name of national security.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Sep 2021

Attorney General of Malaysia v Mkini Dotcom Sdn Bhd (2021)

The Federal Court of Malaysia held that an online news website which had published comments by its subscribers which criticised the judiciary was guilty of contempt of court, despite the website removing the comments within twelve minutes of being informed by the police.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_police Cybercrimes · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Malaysia · Nov 2022

Biancardi v Italy (2021)

The European Court of Human Rights held that an online publisher’s failure to comply with a de-indexing request justified restricting the publisher’s freedom of expression by allowing the request.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Italy · Nov 2022

Madanhire and Another v Attorney General of Zimbabwe (2014)

The Constitutional Court of Zimbabwe found that the offense of criminal defamation was incompatible with the Constitution of Zimbabwe.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Africa · Zimbabwe · Apr 2014

10 Human Rights Organisations v United Kingdom (2018)

The European Court of Human Rights was faced with a matter regarding the British government’s power to engage in surveillance and whether its bulk interception regime was a violation of the right to privacy.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2018