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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Advanced Module 6: Litigating Digital Rights in Africa

Provides an overview of key concepts and procedural requirements and the stages of litigation at various regional courts.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Jersild v Denmark (1994)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the intent of a journalist who created a documentary featuring interviews of racist, neo-Nazi gangs was to make a serious social inquiry exposing the views of racist gangs, and therefore not hate speech.

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Denmark · Europe · Apr 1994

Ribalda and Others v Spain (2019)

The European Court of Human Rights upheld the right of a supermarket to utilise covert video-surveillance of employees which led to their dismissal.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · Spain · Apr 2019

Explaining the Issues: Internet Shutdowns

phonelink_lock Digital rights · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Oct 2020

Maria Ressa: Award-Winning Journalist Facing 6 Years in Prison

local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · Philippines · Jun 2020

Amnesty International Togo and Others v The Togolese Republic (2020)

The ECOWAS Court of Justice ruled that the 2017 internet shutdown by the Togolese government was illegal and was a violation of the right to freedom of expression.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Africa · Togo · Apr 2020

Die Grünen v Facebook Ireland Limited (2020)

The Austrian Supreme Court ruled that Facebook must remove all postings worldwide containing hate speech about an Austrian politician.

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Austria · Europe · Apr 2020

Attorney General of Uganda and Another v Awadh and Others (2012)

The East African Court of Justice held that it would not adopt a flexible approach to the requirement to file references within two months of the alleged violation (the two-month rule).

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Uganda · Apr 2012

In fear of cartoons

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Denmark · Europe · France · Jun 2015

Kharitonov v Russia (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the blocking of a website as a consequence of a blocking order against another website which had the same IP address was a violation of the right to freedom of expression and information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Apr 2020