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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Summary Module 10: Introduction to Litigating Digital Rights in Africa

Strategic litigation is a powerful tool to advance digital rights and it is increasingly being used in a variety of different and innovative ways.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Konaté v Burkina Faso (2014)

The African Court overruled the conviction and harsh penalties levied on a journalist for defamation relating to news articles alleging corruption of a state prosecutor, and found that the conviction was a disproportionate interference with the journalist’s right to freedom of expression.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Burkina · Apr 2014

Social and Economic Rights Action Centre and Another v Nigeria (2002)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights argued that although the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights does not contain an express provision on the right to privacy, the right can – and should – be read into the African Charter through to the right to respect for life, the right to dignity,…

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2002

Explaining the Issues: The Right to be Forgotten

In our Explaining the Issues series, we explain legal issues faced by the media – this instalment covers the right to be forgotten.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · Dec 2020

A chance to set a Europe-wide precedent on hyperlinking

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Hungary · Jun 2016

Media Defence Training Manual on Digital Rights and Freedom of Expression Online

The Media Defence Training Manual on Digital Rights and Freedom of Expression Online is designed to assist lawyers represent web-based journalists, bloggers and other online media. It comprises a comprehensive overview of international and comparative law on access to the internet, digital privacy and online data protection as well as specific types of speech-related offences online.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · Aug 2018

Media Council of Tanzania v Attorney-General of the United Republic of Tanzania (2019)

The East African Court of Justice ruled in favour of upholding the fundamental right to freedom of expression and called for the repeal of vague and broad provisions that seek to stifle freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Tanzania · Apr 2019

National Media Ltd and Others v Bogoshi (1998)

The Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa developed the defence of reasonable publication as protection from a claim of defamation.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · South Africa · Apr 1998

Article 19 v Eritrea (2007)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights established the “. . . actio popularis approach where the author of a communication need not know or have any relationship with the victim.  This is to enable poor victims of human rights violations on the continent to receive assistance from NGOs and individuals far removed from…

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Eritrea · Apr 2007

How Far Does the “Right to be Forgotten” Extend? Crucial Case Referred to Court of Justice of the European Union

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · France · Jul 2017