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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Summary Module 2: Introduction to Digital Rights

Digital rights — which include the right to freedom of expression, privacy and access to information — are the same fundamental human rights as those enjoyed offline but adapted to a new age of technology

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Magyar Tartalomszolgáltatók Egyesülete and Index.hu Zrt v Hungary (2016)

The European Court of Human Rights found that internet portals assume duties and responsibilities particularly in the context of offensive and vulgar comments — even if the speech is not unlawful.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · Hungary · Apr 2016

Disini v the Secretary of Justice (2014)

The Supreme Court of Philippines ruled that several provisions of the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 violated freedom of expression and privacy.

local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · Philippines · Apr 2014

Reporting at Protests: Factsheet

Protests can be newsworthy events, and in some cases can determine the political or social course of a country for years to come.  Covering protests is therefore a crucial part of a journalist’s responsibilities, but can often be one of the most dangerous.  According to the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, nearly half of all press freedom…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

UPDATE: ECOWAS Court delivers landmark decision in one of our strategic cases challenging the laws used to silence and intimidate journalists in the Gambia

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Gambia · Mar 2018

Module de synthèse 4 : Vie privée et protection des données

Le droit à la vie privée prend de plus en plus d’importance avec l’augmentation des flux de données et la nécessité concomitante de protéger les informations personnelles.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Apr 2021

Advanced Module 3: Criminalisation of Online Speech

Sets out the applicable international human rights standards and provides an overview of fundamental international and regional legal principles.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Google Spain SL v Agencia Española de Protección de Datos (2014)

The Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that the right to be forgotten means that personal information that is “inadequate, irrelevant or no longer relevant, or excessive” must be erased by the search engine, but that the right should not apply to information that is relevant for the public interest.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · Spain · Apr 2014

Digital Rights Ireland Ltd v Minister of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources et al (2014)

The European Court of Justice held that a European Union directive requiring Internet Service Providers to store telecommunications data in order to facilitate the prevention and prosecution of crime was found to be invalid.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Austria · Europe · Ireland · Apr 2014

Digital Rights Advocates: Interview with Rwandan Lawyer Louis Gitinywa

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · Rwanda · Nov 2020