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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Delfi AS v Estonia (2013)

The European Court of Human Rights found that an online news portal was liable for offensive comments they allowed to be posted below one of their news articles.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Estonia · Europe · Apr 2013

Law Society of Zimbabwe and Others v Zimbabwe (2016)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights indicated that the court will adopt a flexible approach that allows anyone to file a communication for the court’s consideration, including non-victim individuals, CSOs and pressure groups.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Zimbabwe · Apr 2016

Big Brother Watch v United Kingdom (2018)

The European Court of Human Rights found some aspects of the UK’s mass surveillance regime to be in violation of the right to privacy and the right to freedom of expression.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2018

World Press Freedom Day Series: Citizen Journalist Elena Popa

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Austria · Europe · Germany · May 2020

Okedara v Attorney General (2019)

The Court of Appeal in Lagos dismissed a challenge to the constitutionality of the Cybercrime Act, disagreeing with the Appellant that the provision was vague, overly broad and ambiguous, and threatened his rights to freedom of expression.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2021

Module 6: Hate Speech (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

International law requires states to ban hate speech which intentionally incites to violence, hatred or discrimination, but not that actual harm results. The biggest danger with hate speech is that vagueness in defining its meaning may allow such laws to be used as tools to stifle legitimate criticism or political speech. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Asia · Sep 2022

Rout v State of Odisha (2020)

The High Court of Orissa, India held that the right to be forgotten is an integral part of the right to privacy and that there must be a mechanism through which a victim can protect her privacy by having the content deleted from the servers of intermediaries.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Módulo 3: Acceso a internet (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

El derecho internacional no reconoce expresamente el derecho a Internet. Sin embargo, es ampliamente aceptado que el acceso a Internet permite el ejercicio de múltiplos derechos fundamentales.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Constitutional Rights Project v Nigeria (1999)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights confirmed that there must be a legitimate reason for the limitation of right and that the limitation must be proportionate and necessary.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 1999

Explaining the Issues: False News

In our Explaining the Issues series, we explain legal issues faced by the media – this instalment covers false news.

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Jul 2014