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    Module 4: Data Privacy and Data Protection

    Summary Modules on Digital Rights and Freedom of Expression Online

    • The right to privacy is gaining prominence with increasing data flows and the concomitant need for the protection of personal information.
    • In the African context, there are multiple instruments, including the AU Convention on Cyber Security and Personal Data Protection (Malabo Convention), which govern data protection.
    • Importantly, states should ensure that their domestic legislation details principles for the lawful processing of personal information and that they keep step with data protection developments.
    • Allied to data protection are the concepts of the ‘right to be forgotten’, encryption and government-led surveillance.
    • Notably, the disclosure of journalistic sources as a result of state surveillance has a negative impact on freedom of expression and journalistic freedom.