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    Conclusion

    Module 8: ‘False News’, Misinformation and Propaganda

    The advent of the internet and the proliferation of false news and misinformation occasioned by the increased use of social media platforms is a primary contemporary concern.  It fuels political polarisation and impacts a plethora of fundamental rights, including the right to freedom of expression, equality, and free and fair elections.  However, absent unprotected speech, the remedies to combat misinformation are, at this stage, largely social and educational.  MIL strategies and campaigns, coupled with fact-checking and the publication of counter-narratives, remain the primary vanguard in the fight for the truth.