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    Module 8: ‘False News’, Misinformation and Propaganda

    As detailed above and in module 6 of this series, unlike dis- and misinformation, the spread of propaganda is expressly prohibited in international law, provided that it propagates for war or advocacy of hatred that constitutes incitement.(1) In these instances, multiple direct legal remedies such as criminal prosecutions and interdictory or injunctive relief may result. However, often propaganda does not meet these thresholds.  In these instances, MIL strategies and campaigns and fact-checking, coupled with the publication of counter-narratives or counter‑disinformation, are effective remedies.(2)


    1. Article 20 of the ICCPR, read with article 4(a) of CERD. Back
    2. See, for example, the UK Government Communications Services, ‘RESIST: Counter-disinformation toolkit’ (accessible at: Back