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    Conclusion

    Module 6: Hate Speech

    Hate speech is a highly contentious issue in Africa, dividing the community of freedom of expression defenders on where the line should sit between protecting speech that is harmful to minority groups and enabling important dissent and criticism.  The challenges of dealing with hate speech are particularly salient in online hate speech cases, where intent can be more complicated and remedies harder to implement.  Defamation of religion and particularly tragic past events such as genocides are sometimes treated as special cases, but there are questions around whether this is justified.  Related crimes such as blasphemy are beginning to be removed in progressive jurisdictions, and African states who have not yet removed these crimes, should be encouraged to follow suit.