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    Module 2: Digital attacks and Online Gender-Based Violence

    Modules on Online Violence against Journalists in Sub-Saharan Africa

    The focus of this module:

    • Digital attacks against journalists occur in a wide range of formats that are constantly evolving as new technologies develop.
    • This module provides an analysis of cyber-harassment, non-consensual dissemination of intimate images, dis-and misinformation, privacy violations, DoS and DDoS attacks, government and commercial surveillance, phishing, and the confiscation of hardware as examples of the attacks commonly faced by women journalists.
    • Despite theoretically strong protections in international human rights law, many countries have not yet legislated these harms effectively. Nevertheless, an analysis of alternative legal remedies in existing legislation across the continent indicates some promising options for defenders of women journalists online.
    • In addition, this is a field that is rapidly developing, and there is scope to influence the development of appropriate laws to provide protection against online abuse, harassment, surveillance, etc.