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    Module 9: National Security

    National security remains a common justification offered by states for limiting freedom of expression by journalists, bloggers, and media organs.  However, it is often used not to protect security but to quell dissent and cover up state abuses.  Increasingly, courts are limiting the scope of application of national security laws as they are often vague and drafted with a view to circumventing constitutional checks and balances.  Activists, lawyers, and members of the media should, however, remain vigilant and test all national security-related laws for compliance with international law, including the Johannesburg, Tshwane and Siracusa Principles.