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    Module 10: Violence Against Journalists

    Violence against journalists and others for exercising their right to freedom of expression poses a particularly serious threat to the realisation of this right. Besides violating the rights of the targets, such violence may lead to journalists self-censoring, especially by avoiding reporting on important but sensitive topics such as corruption, organised crime or human rights violations. This in turn harms the rights of society as a whole to access information about these issues freely.

    This Module provides an overview of State obligations under international human rights law to address violence against journalists. It first gives a brief overview of the scope of State obligations to create a favourable environment for freedom of expression. It then looks specifically at State obligations to respond to physical and online violence against journalists, protection of journalistic sources, and gender-based violence. It ends with a discussion of practical approaches to combatting violence.