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    Module 8: ‘False news’, misinformation and propaganda

    The phenomenon (1) of false news and misinformation has increased exponentially in recent times with the advent of the internet and social media platforms.  While manipulating and distorting information is squarely part of the historical record, the weaponisation of information in the 21st century is occurring on an unprecedented scale, which requires urgent and effective responses.  This module focuses on ‘false news’, misinformation and propaganda, and provides guidance on media and information literacy (MIL) strategies and campaigns(2) which may assist with mitigating dis- and misinformation while ensuring that the right to freedom of expression is not violated.


    1. For more on this topic see Media Defence “Training Manual on Digital Rights and Freedom of expression Online: Litigating digital rights and online freedom of expression in East, West and Southern Africa (accessible at: For further information see First Draft, ‘Understanding and addressing the disinformation ecosystem’ (2017) (accessible at: Back