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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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María Belén Rodriguez v Google (2014)

The Supreme Court of Argentina held that search engines are under no duty to monitor the legality of third-party content to which they link, and only in exceptional circumstances could they be required to disable access.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Argentina · South America · Apr 2014

Módulo 6: Discursos de odio (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

Es importante encontrar el equilibrio adecuado entre el discurso que es ofensivo pero importante para la libertad de expresión, y el discurso que constituye un discurso de odio, no protegido por la libertad de expresión.

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Emerging Trend: Internet Shutdowns

An internet shutdown is an intentional disruption of internet or electronic communications, rendering them inaccessible or effectively unusable, for a specific population or within a location, often to exert control over the flow of information. A shutdown arises when someone, be it the government or a private sector actor, intentionally disrupts the internet, a telecommunications network or an internet service, arguably to control or curb what people say or do.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

De Queiroz v Google Brasil Internet Ltda. (2016)

The State Court of Appeals of São Paulo, Brazil held that an individual who had obtained criminal rehabilitation had a right to be forgotten and ordered the de-indexing of content about his criminal conviction.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Ministra Nancy Andrighi v Google Brasil Internet Ltd and Others (2012)

The Superior Court of Brazil held that search engines cannot be compelled to remove search results relating to a specific term or expression.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Brazil · South America · Apr 2012

Módulo 7: Cibercrímenes (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

Aunque existen distintas normativas que castigan determinadas conductas como tal, no existe una definición legal y común sobre el cibercrimen a nivel interamericano. No obstante, se acude a esta figura cuando las conductas afectan la integridad, confidencialidad y disponibilidad de la información contenida en sistemas informáticos, de redes o de datos y, además, cuando se hace uso indebido del Internet.

local_police Cybercrimes · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Emerging Trend: Surveillance & Encryption

In the digital world, in which our communications increasingly occur online or through digital channels and where we leave an ever-growing trail of data in the wake of so many of our daily activities, digital surveillance is a growing trend and a potential threat to freedom of expression and privacy.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Ministra Nancy Andrighi v Google Brasil Internet Ltd (2012)

The Superior Tribunal of Justice in Brazil held that search engines cannot be compelled to remove search results relating to a specific term or expression.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Gender & Online Harassment: Factsheet

Note: this Factsheet deals with issues of a sensitive nature relating to harassment and gender-based violence. The relationship between gender and online harassment Online harassment and intimidation through text messages, phone calls or social media — often known as cyberstalking or cyber-harassment — severely restricts the enjoyment that persons have of their rights online, particularly…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Módulo 8: Noticias falsas, desinformación y propaganda

El término “noticias falsas” se refiere a noticias que son de forma intencional y verificable falsas, y buscan engañar a los lectores.
Aunque se reconocen los males sociales ocasionados por las noticias falsas y la desinformación, los tribunales y actores internacionales sostienen que las disposiciones generales y excesivamente amplias que penalizan las noticias falsas y la desinformación violan el derecho a la libertad de expresión.

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023