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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Advanced Module 5: Trends in Censorship by Private Actors

Provides an overview of the current ways in which non-state actors are facilitating online censorship.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Explaining the Issues: Criminal Libel

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Oct 2013

Advanced Module 6: Litigating Digital Rights in Africa

Provides an overview of key concepts and procedural requirements and the stages of litigation at various regional courts.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Inter-American Court of Human Rights Protects Freedom of Expression in Venezuelan Criminal Defamation Case

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · South America · Venezuela · Oct 2019

María Belén Rodriguez v Google (2014)

The Supreme Court of Argentina held that search engines are under no duty to monitor the legality of third-party content to which they link, and only in exceptional circumstances could they be required to disable access.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Argentina · South America · Apr 2014

Emerging Trend: Internet Shutdowns

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Ministra Nancy Andrighi v Google Brasil Internet Ltd and Others (2012)

The Superior Court of Brazil held that search engines cannot be compelled to remove search results relating to a specific term or expression.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Brazil · South America · Apr 2012

Emerging Trend: Surveillance & Encryption

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Gender & Online Harassment: Factsheet

Note: this Factsheet deals with issues of a sensitive nature relating to harassment and gender-based violence. The relationship between gender and online harassment Online harassment and intimidation through text messages, phone calls or social media — often known as cyberstalking or cyber-harassment — severely restricts the enjoyment that persons have of their rights online, particularly…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Emerging Trend: Intermediary Liability

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021