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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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The Case of Nonconsensual Pornography Sent to Victim’s Parents (2021)

The Constitutional Court of Ecuador held that the storage and sharing of sexual photos without the consent of the victim were a violation of her constitutional rights to personal data protection, reputation, and intimacy.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Ecuador · South America · Nov 2022

Advanced Module 2: Restricting Access and Content (sub-Saharan Africa)

Provides an overview of the current mechanisms through which access to the internet and access to content is restricted.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Módulo 5: Difamación y reputación (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

Las acciones legales por difamación se utilizan con frecuencia para callar injustamente el disenso y la crítica legítima. Sin embargo, pueden también representar un mecanismo válido para proteger la reputación de aquellos perjudicados por declaraciones de otros.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Reporting at Protests: Factsheet

Protests can be newsworthy events, and in some cases can determine the political or social course of a country for years to come.  Covering protests is therefore a crucial part of a journalist’s responsibilities, but can often be one of the most dangerous.  According to the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, nearly half of all press freedom…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Curi et al v Globo Comunicação e Participações S/A (2021)

The Brazilian Federal Supreme Court held that a general right to be forgotten is incompatible with the Federal Constitution.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Advanced Module 3: Criminalisation of Online Speech (sub-Saharan Africa)

Sets out the applicable international human rights standards and provides an overview of fundamental international and regional legal principles.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Módulo 6: Discursos de odio (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

Es importante encontrar el equilibrio adecuado entre el discurso que es ofensivo pero importante para la libertad de expresión, y el discurso que constituye un discurso de odio, no protegido por la libertad de expresión.

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Spyware & Digital Surveillance: Factsheet

In the world of advanced methods of data collection, graphics processing and algorithms, there is wide-spread concern that the increasing prevalence of spyware and digital surveillance pose a serious threat to human rights, most notably, privacy and freedom of expression. Spyware and surveillance may take various forms, including but not limited to electronic trackers, security…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

De Queiroz v Google Brasil Internet Ltda. (2016)

The State Court of Appeals of São Paulo, Brazil held that an individual who had obtained criminal rehabilitation had a right to be forgotten and ordered the de-indexing of content about his criminal conviction.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Advanced Module 4: Privacy and Security Online (sub-Saharan Africa)

Provides an overview of the right to privacy, as it relates to issues such as data protection, surveillance, facial recognition, encryption, and online harassment.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020