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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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local_fire_department Defamation & reputation

While defamation laws aim to provide individuals with a remedy for public statements that may harm their reputation or honour, they frequently come into conflict with the right to freedom of expression.

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Inter-American Court of Human Rights Protects Freedom of Expression in Venezuelan Criminal Defamation Case

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · South America · Venezuela · Oct 2019

European Court considers Media Defence intervention on “defamation of the dead”

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Europe · Slovakia · Dec 2017

Free Speech Organisations Submit Amicus Brief in Inter-American Court of Human Rights Case on Criminal Defamation

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · South America · Venezuela · Apr 2021

Media Defence Intervenes in European Court Case on Media’s Right to Access and Report from Defamation Proceedings

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Mar 2018

Defamation Liability Should Not Extend to Publishers for Hyperlinking – Media Defence Files Intervention to European Court

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Apr 2017

Explaining the Issues: Criminal Libel

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Oct 2013