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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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gavel Litigating freedom of expression

Strategic litigation is a key tool being used to uphold freedom of expression and to advance digital rights.

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Keeping the channels open: reflections on the importance of freedom of expression online

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · May 2018

Módulo 1: Principios de derecho internacional y libertad de expresión (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

La libertad de expresión es uno de los derechos que se ha beneficiado de esta tendencia, sin embargo este derecho está cada vez más amenazado por los drásticos cambios en el ecosistema de medios de comunicación y por el mismo flujo de información proveniente del Internet.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Sir Dawda K. Jawara v The Gambia (2000)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights confirmed that in circumstances where it is effective and sufficient to redress the complaint, a domestic remedy may be available to a petitioner.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Gambia · Apr 2000

Bhasin v Union of India; Azad v Union of India (2020)

The Supreme Court of India found that freedom of speech and expression and the freedom to practice any profession or occupation over the medium of the internet enjoys constitutional protection and that suspending internet services indefinitely is impermissible.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · India · Apr 2020

Norbert Zongo and Others v Burkina Faso (2014)

The African Court found that when dealing with the issue of damages, a distinction could be made between material damages and moral damages.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Burkina · Apr 2014

Using Strategic Litigation to Challenge Internet Shutdowns – Challenges and Successes (FIFAfrica21)

Reports of internet shutdowns and social media blocking are increasing in Africa and governments are becoming more sophisticated in their approaches. As more courts hand down decisions, this panel at #FIFAfrica21 examine how that jurisprudence can be used to counter this. The panel focuses on challenges and opportunities for litigators when trying to achieve positive judgments in Africa.

The panellists discuss challenging internet shutdowns within domestic courts and regional mechanisms in Africa and outline their experiences of strategic litigation in the context of internet shutdowns and social media blocking. This includes discussing recent applications to ECOWAS challenging the shutdown in Guinea and the Twitter ban in Nigeria.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Sep 2021

Arbitrary Detention of Journalists in Vietnam

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · Vietnam · Jul 2018

Módulo 11: Introducción al litigio sobre libertad de expresión en América Latina (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

Los Estados tienen una obligación negativa de respeto de los derechos humanos y tres obligaciones positivas que se complementan recíprocamente: la obligación de prevenir, la obligación de proteger y la obligación de investigar, juzgar y sancionar a los responsables de la violencia contra periodistas.
Los estándares y prácticas sobre prevención, protección y procuración de justicia en los casos de violencia contra periodistas y trabajadores de medios de comunicación se han construido a partir del estudio de diversos casos de litigio estratégico en la región ante el SIDH.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Herrera-Ulloa v Costa Rica (2004)

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights held that Costa Rica’s criminal defamation law violated the American Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Costa Rica · North America · Apr 2004

Landmark Judgment: ECOWAS Court Finds Togo Violated FoE with Internet Shutdown

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Togo · Jun 2020