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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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The Incorporated Trustees of Laws and Rights Awareness Initiatives v Nigeria (2020)

The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice ordered Nigeria to repeal its cybercrime legislation which was held to violate the right to freedom of expression.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Nigeria · Nov 2022

Andama v Director of Public Prosecution (2019)

The Nairobi High Court in Kenya ruled that a provision criminalising the publication of “obscene information in electronic form” was an unjustifiable limitation of the rights to freedom of expression and to a fair trial.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Nov 2022

Segerman vs Peterson (2022)

The High Court of South Africa overturned a protection order granted by a Cape Town Magistrate’s Court that prevented a woman from speaking about her rape by her ex-boyfriend.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Rout v State of Odisha (2020)

The High Court of Orissa, India held that the right to be forgotten is an integral part of the right to privacy and that there must be a mechanism through which a victim can protect her privacy by having the content deleted from the servers of intermediaries.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · India · Nov 2022

The Case of the Egyptian TikTok Influencers (2021)

The Court of Appeals in Cairo acquitted one woman and upheld the conviction of another who had been sentenced to imprisonment for violating “family principles and values upheld by Egyptian society” by posting “indecent” videos and images.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Egypt · Nov 2022

The Case of Nonconsensual Pornography Sent to Victim’s Parents (2021)

The Constitutional Court of Ecuador held that the storage and sharing of sexual photos without the consent of the victim were a violation of her constitutional rights to personal data protection, reputation, and intimacy.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Ecuador · South America · Nov 2022

Attorney General of Malaysia v Mkini Dotcom Sdn Bhd (2021)

The Federal Court of Malaysia held that an online news website which had published comments by its subscribers which criticised the judiciary was guilty of contempt of court, despite the website removing the comments within twelve minutes of being informed by the police.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_police Cybercrimes · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Malaysia · Nov 2022

X v Union of India (2021)

The High Court of Delhi, India ordered the police to remove content published without the subject’s consent on a website and search engines to de-index that content from their search results.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Unconstitutionality of Article 55 of the Press Act (2021)

The Constitutional Court of Colombia held that a law that established a preferential civil liability regime for damages allegedly caused by opinions spread through mass communication channels could lead to self-censorship and was thus unconstitutional.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Colombia · South America · Nov 2022

Attorney General v N.F. (2018)

The Court of Cassation of Tunis upheld the acquittal of a woman who had been charged with publishing false news threatening public order because her act of deleting the post had neutralised the intent required.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Tunisia · Nov 2022