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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Okedara v Attorney General (2019)

The Court of Appeal in Lagos dismissed a challenge to the constitutionality of the Cybercrime Act, disagreeing with the Appellant that the provision was vague, overly broad and ambiguous, and threatened his rights to freedom of expression.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2021

Mineral Sands Resources and Another v Christine Reddell and Others (2021)

The High Court of South Africa found that a mining company had been abusing judicial processes to intimidate, distract and silence public criticism, and dismissed a defamation case as a SLAPP suit.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · South Africa · Apr 2021

amaBhungane v Minister of Justice (2021)

The Constitutional Court of South Africa held that the Regulation of Interception of Communications Act (RICA), which regulated mass surveillance in South Africa, was unconstitutional.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Apr 2021

Gaughran v United Kingdom (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the indefinite retention of data of a man who had a spent conviction was a violation of his privacy rights.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2020

Nubian Rights Forum and Others v The Hon. Attorney General and Others (2020)

The High Court in Kenya held that a new digital identity system could only be implemented subject to the improvement of the existing data protection laws.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Apr 2020

Die Grünen v Facebook Ireland Limited (2020)

The Austrian Supreme Court ruled that Facebook must remove all postings worldwide containing hate speech about an Austrian politician.

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Austria · Europe · Apr 2020

Bhasin v Union of India; Azad v Union of India (2020)

The Supreme Court of India found that freedom of speech and expression and the freedom to practice any profession or occupation over the medium of the internet enjoys constitutional protection and that suspending internet services indefinitely is impermissible.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · India · Apr 2020

Amnesty International Togo and Others v The Togolese Republic (2020)

The ECOWAS Court of Justice ruled that the 2017 internet shutdown by the Togolese government was illegal and was a violation of the right to freedom of expression.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Africa · Togo · Apr 2020

WASHLITE v Fox News (2020)

The Washington Superior Court found that Fox News’ repeated claims that COVID-19 was/is a hoax were protected under the freedom of expression protections of the First Amendment.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · North America · US · Apr 2020

Kharitonov v Russia (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the blocking of a website as a consequence of a blocking order against another website which had the same IP address was a violation of the right to freedom of expression and information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Apr 2020