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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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WASHLITE v Fox News (2020)

The Washington Superior Court found that Fox News’ repeated claims that COVID-19 was/is a hoax were protected under the freedom of expression protections of the First Amendment.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · North America · US · Apr 2020

Packingham v State of North Carolina (2017)

The Supreme Court of the United States found a law in North Carolina to be in violation of the First Amendment because it made it a felony for a registered sex offender “to access a commercial social networking Web site where the sex offender knows that the site permits minor children to become members or…

local_police Cybercrimes · North America · US · Apr 2017

United States v Alvarez (2012)

In the majority opinion of the United States Supreme Court, Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote that “[t]he remedy for speech that is false is speech that is true.  This is the ordinary course in a free society.”

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · US · Apr 2012

New York Times Co. v United States (1971)

The United States Supreme Court rejected a request for prior restraint on the basis that it may only be allowed in extreme circumstances, and that ‘security’ could not be provided by guarding state secrets at the expense of informed representative government.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · North America · US · Apr 1971

New York Times v Sullivan (1964)

The United States Supreme Court established that public officials should face a higher threshold of criticism.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · North America · US · Apr 1964