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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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The Case of Communications Suspension and Internet Shutdown During the 2011 Egyptian Revolution (2018)

The Egyptian Supreme Administrative Court overturned the decision of the first instance administrative court to levy a fine for the imposition of a complete suspension of mobile services and a blanket shutdown of internet services in Egypt in 2011.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Africa · Egypt · Nov 2022

Vladimir Kharitonov v Russia (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the wholesale blocking of a website in error because it shared an IP address with another website sharing illegal content was far beyond the illegal content actually targeted and was a violation of the right to freedom of expression.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · Russian Federation · Nov 2022

OOO Flavus v Russia (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the indiscriminate blocking of entire online news websites without giving notice of the specific offending material was a breach of the right to freedom of expression.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · Russian Federation · Nov 2022

Economic Freedom Fighters v Minister of Justice (2020)

The Constitutional Court of South Africa held that a provision criminalising incitement to “any offence” was overly broad and an infringement of the right to freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Attorney General of Malaysia v Mkini Dotcom Sdn Bhd (2021)

The Federal Court of Malaysia held that an online news website which had published comments by its subscribers which criticised the judiciary was guilty of contempt of court, despite the website removing the comments within twelve minutes of being informed by the police.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_police Cybercrimes · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Malaysia · Nov 2022

Kalda v Estonia (2016)

The European Court of Human Rights held that a prisoner had a right to access certain internet sites even though he already had access to paper versions of the information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Estonia · Europe · Nov 2022

The Case on Facebook’s Terms of Service (2021)

The German Federal Court of Justice ruled that Facebook’s terms of service on deleting user posts and blocking accounts for violations of its Community Standards were invalid because they failed to account for informing users and giving them an opportunity to respond.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Germany · Nov 2022

The Gambia v Facebook (2021)

In a discovery request, the US District Court held that Facebook must disclose de-platformed content and internal investigation documents relating to the incitement of ethnic hatred against the Rohingyas in Myanmar.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · North America · US · Nov 2022

Keskin Kalem Yayıncılık v Ticaret A.Ş. (2021)

The Turkish Constitutional Court held that blocking access to news articles on account of a violation of reputation and personal rights violated the right to freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Asia · Turkey · Nov 2022

SERAP v Federal Republic of Nigeria (2022)

The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice ruled that Nigeria’s banning of Twitter was unlawful and that access to Twitter is a “derivative right” that is “complementary to the enjoyment of the right to freedom of expression.”

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Nigeria · Nov 2022