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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Sharma v Union of India (2021)

In this ruling stemming from the Pegasus Spyware scandal, the Supreme Court of India ordered an independent inquiry into allegations that the government deployed the Pegasus spyware against various journalists, politicians, and dissidents.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Biancardi v Italy (2021)

The European Court of Human Rights held that an online publisher’s failure to comply with a de-indexing request justified restricting the publisher’s freedom of expression by allowing the request.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Italy · Nov 2022

Hurbain v Belgium (2021)

The European Court of Human Rights (Third Section) held that an order enforcing the right to be forgotten of a person involved in a road accident through anonymisation did not breach the publisher’s freedom of expression.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Belgium · Europe · Nov 2022

Standard Verlagsgesellschaft mbH v Austria (no. 3) (2021)

The European Court of Human Rights ruled that requiring a media company to disclose the identities of registered users that had made comments on its site was a violation of freedom of expression due to the political nature of the comments and the failure to run a test on balancing competing interests.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Austria · Europe · Nov 2022

The Case of São Paulo SubwWT: MDay Facial Recognition Cameras (2021)

A Civil Court in São Paulo, Brazil held that the use of facial recognition technology on a subway line was an infringement of the right to privacy of one’s image and to the freedom of information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Big Brother Watch v. the United Kingdom (No. 2) (2021)

The Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights held that a provision of the United Kingdom’s surveillance law that enabled regimes on bulk interception and obtaining data from communications service providers violated the rights to privacy and freedom of expression.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · United Kingdom · Nov 2022

Manohar v. Union of India (2021)

The Supreme Court of India found that there was a prima facie case to create an Expert Committee to examine allegations of unauthorised surveillance and privacy breaches by the Indian government and foreign parties on Indian citizens using the Pegasus spyware.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Lloyd v. Google LLC (2021)

The United Kingdom Supreme Court held that Google was not liable to pay damages for unlawfully collecting data because damages cannot be granted without an individual assessment of the damages payable to the aggrieved.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · United Kingdom · Nov 2022

Arthur v Ghana Telecommunications Company (2021)

The High Court of Ghana ordered the National Communications Authority to stop collecting personal information from mobile phone subscribers and the government to delete data already collected within fourteen days.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Ghana · Nov 2022

Ministra Nancy Andrighi v Google Brasil Internet Ltd (2012)

The Superior Tribunal of Justice in Brazil held that search engines cannot be compelled to remove search results relating to a specific term or expression.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022