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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Advanced Module 6: Litigating Digital Rights in Africa (sub-Saharan Africa)

Provides an overview of key concepts and procedural requirements and the stages of litigation at various regional courts.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Jun 2024

Advanced Module 3: Criminalisation of Online Speech (sub-Saharan Africa)

Sets out the applicable international human rights standards and provides an overview of fundamental international and regional legal principles.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Jun 2024

Advanced Module 1: General Overview of Trends in Digital Rights Globally (sub-Saharan Africa)

Sets out trends and expected developments in the context of the right of access to information, particularly trends that pose a threat to access to information.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Jun 2024

Protección de los defensores del medio ambiente: Factsheet

Jurisprudencia relevante para la protección de los periodistas medioambientales Los periodistas medioambientales informan sobre temas importantes y delicados como la deforestación, la minería ilegal, la confiscación de tierras y la contaminación. Proporcionan al público información esencial al investigar y sacar a la luz actividades privadas y estatales que repercuten negativamente en el medio ambiente. Al…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Canada · Europe · Kenya · North America · South Africa · Zimbabwe · May 2024

Militer en faveur des défenseurs de l’environnement: Factsheet

Jurisprudence relative à la protection des journalistes environnementaux Les journalistes environnementaux traitent de sujets importants et sensibles, tels que la déforestation, l’exploitation minière illégale, les saisies de terres et la pollution. En enquêtant et en mettant au jour les activités privées et publiques qui ont un impact négatif sur l’environnement, ils fournissent au public desinformations…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Canada · Europe · North America · South Africa · Zimbabwe · May 2024

Defending Environmental Defenders: Factsheet

Caselaw relevant to the protection of environmental journalists Environmental journalists report on important and sensitive topics, including deforestation, illegal mining, land seizures and pollution. By investigating and uncovering private and state activities that impact adversely on the environment, they provide the public with essential information. At the same time, they provide this critical service at…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Europe · North America · May 2024

SLAPPs in sub-Saharan Africa

Strategic Lawsuits against Public Participation (SLAPPs) are vexatious and meritless legal action, often taken against journalists and human rights activists who have expressed a critical opinion. They are intended to distract from the reporting, intimidate and discourage them from voicing their opinions, and divert resources from public interest reporting to defending the abusive suits. SLAPPs…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Kenya · Nigeria · South Africa · Oct 2023

Disinformation and Online Harassment against Women Journalists in sub-Saharan Africa

The rise of digital platforms, online news reporting and social media has fuelled disinformation and online harassment, often targeting women journalists. Disinformation refers to information that is “falsely and deliberately created to harm a person, social group, organisation or country.” Often, this takes the form of spreading lies about a journalist’s character or work and…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Kenya · Nigeria · South Africa · Oct 2023

Módulo 12: Introducción al sistema universal de protección de los derechos humanos (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

El sistema universal de los derechos humanos se desarrolló a partir del interés común de la comunidad internacional de establecer límites a los Estados y establecer mecanismos para la garantía de los derechos humanos y compromisos internacionales sobre la materia y la democracia. Tras las distintas guerras y atrocidades de la primera mitad del siglo XX, la comunidad internacional sentó las bases normativas de lo que a posteriori se conocería como la Carta Internacional de Derechos Humanos o “Internacional Bill of Rights”. Esta es conformada por la Declaración Universal de Derechos Humanos, el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, S

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Módulo 1: Principios de derecho internacional y libertad de expresión (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

La libertad de expresión es uno de los derechos que se ha beneficiado de esta tendencia, sin embargo este derecho está cada vez más amenazado por los drásticos cambios en el ecosistema de medios de comunicación y por el mismo flujo de información proveniente del Internet.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023