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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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The Case of Communications Suspension and Internet Shutdown During the 2011 Egyptian Revolution (2018)

The Egyptian Supreme Administrative Court overturned the decision of the first instance administrative court to levy a fine for the imposition of a complete suspension of mobile services and a blanket shutdown of internet services in Egypt in 2011.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Africa · Egypt · Nov 2022

Scanlen & Holderness v Zimbabwe (2009)

The African Commission on Human and People’s Rights held that legislation which introduced an onerous regime for the accreditation of journalists infringed the rights to freedom of expression and to receive information.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Zimbabwe · Nov 2022

Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights v. Zimbabwe (2009)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights held that Zimbabwe violated various rights by using force instead of seeking a Court order to stop a media outlet from operating illegally under a media registration law.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Zimbabwe · Nov 2022

Bosasa Operation (Pty) Ltd v Basson (2012)

The South Gauteng High Court in South Africa ruled that a journalist should not be required to reveal their sources and that doing so would infringe on the freedom of the press.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Segerman vs Peterson (2022)

The High Court of South Africa overturned a protection order granted by a Cape Town Magistrate’s Court that prevented a woman from speaking about her rape by her ex-boyfriend.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Nkosi v Mazwai (2022)

The South Gauteng High Court of South Africa held that statements made online alleging sexual violence committed by a well-known DJ were defamatory.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Economic Freedom Fighters v Minister of Justice (2020)

The Constitutional Court of South Africa held that a provision criminalising incitement to “any offence” was overly broad and an infringement of the right to freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

The Case of the Egyptian TikTok Influencers (2021)

The Court of Appeals in Cairo acquitted one woman and upheld the conviction of another who had been sentenced to imprisonment for violating “family principles and values upheld by Egyptian society” by posting “indecent” videos and images.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Egypt · Nov 2022

Akbar v Ramani (2021)

The Assistant Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Rouse Avenue District Courts, New Delhi dismissed a complaint of criminal defamation against a journalist for allegedly tarnishing the reputation of another journalist and politician by publishing accusations of sexual harassment in the wake of the #MeToo movement.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Media Rights Agenda v Nigeria (2000)

The African Commission on Human and People’s Rights found that Nigeria’s incarceration of an editor allegedly for participating in threats to national security was a violation of his rights.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Africa · Nigeria · Nov 2022