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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Unconstitutionality of Article 55 of the Press Act (2021)

The Constitutional Court of Colombia held that a law that established a preferential civil liability regime for damages allegedly caused by opinions spread through mass communication channels could lead to self-censorship and was thus unconstitutional.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Colombia · South America · Nov 2022

Attorney General v N.F. (2018)

The Court of Cassation of Tunis upheld the acquittal of a woman who had been charged with publishing false news threatening public order because her act of deleting the post had neutralised the intent required.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Tunisia · Nov 2022

Chipenzi v The People (2014)

The High Court of Zambia found that a provision of Zambia’s Penal Code that prohibited the publication of false information likely to cause public fear, violated the Constitution as it did not amount to a reasonable justification for limiting the freedom of expression.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Zambia · Nov 2022

The Case of the Brazil Fake News Inquiry (2021)

A Brazilian judge overseeing an inquiry ordered Facebook and Twitter to suspend the accounts of individuals under investigation for the “dissemination of fake news, false accusations, threats” and to block access to the accounts for all users irrespective of their location.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Gambia Press Union v Attorney General (2018)

The Supreme Court of The Gambia held that the provisions in the Criminal Code relating to sedition and the publication of false news were constitutional.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Gambia · Nov 2022

Module 8: ‘False news’, misinformation and propaganda  (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

While acknowledging the social ills may be occasioned by false news and misinformation, courts and international standards indicate that general provisions which criminalise false news and misinformation violate the right to freedom of expression. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Asia · Sep 2022

Module de synthèse 8 : « Fausses nouvelles », mésinformation et propagande (Afrique subsaharienne)

Tout en reconnaissant les maux sociaux occasionnés par les fausses nouvelles et la mésinformation, les tribunaux et les acteurs internationaux maintiennent que les dispositions générales et trop larges qui criminalisent les fausses nouvelles et la mésinformation violent le droit à la liberté d’expression.

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Apr 2021

European Court Finds Turkey Violated Cumhuriyet Journalists’ Rights to Liberty and Security, Freedom of Expression, Detained in the Crackdown Following July 2016 Coup

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Asia · Turkey · Apr 2021

Reporting at Protests: Factsheet

Protests can be newsworthy events, and in some cases can determine the political or social course of a country for years to come.  Covering protests is therefore a crucial part of a journalist’s responsibilities, but can often be one of the most dangerous.  According to the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, nearly half of all press freedom…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Okedara v Attorney General (2019)

The Court of Appeal in Lagos dismissed a challenge to the constitutionality of the Cybercrime Act, disagreeing with the Appellant that the provision was vague, overly broad and ambiguous, and threatened his rights to freedom of expression.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2021