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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Mineral Sands Resources Pty Ltd v Christine Riddell (2022)

A unanimous judgment from the South African Constitutional Court recognised a SLAPP defence as an existing form of abuse of process under South African law that did not call for a further development of the common law.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Emilio Palacio Urrutia v Ecuador (2021)

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights found that the criminalisation of the dissemination “of an opinion article, about a matter of public interest referred to a public official” criminalised under defamation law was a violation of freedom of expression.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Ecuador · South America · Nov 2022

Kimel v. Argentina (2008)

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that the Argentinian state’s conviction of a journalist for criticising a judicial investigation was an unnecessary and disproportionate violation of freedom of expression, and ordered the state to reform the criminal laws protecting honour and reputation.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Argentina · South America · Nov 2022

Economic Freedom Fighters v Manuel (2020)

In an appeal of the 2019 High Court judgment, the Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa ruled that the EFF had defamed a former politician but found that the High Court had incorrectly quantified the damages to be awarded.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Okuta v Attorney General (2017)

The High Court of Kenya declared the offence of criminal defamation under section 194 of the Kenyan Penal Code to be unconstitutional.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Kenya · Nov 2022

Segerman vs Peterson (2022)

The High Court of South Africa overturned a protection order granted by a Cape Town Magistrate’s Court that prevented a woman from speaking about her rape by her ex-boyfriend.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Nkosi v Mazwai (2022)

The South Gauteng High Court of South Africa held that statements made online alleging sexual violence committed by a well-known DJ were defamatory.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Akbar v Ramani (2021)

The Assistant Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Rouse Avenue District Courts, New Delhi dismissed a complaint of criminal defamation against a journalist for allegedly tarnishing the reputation of another journalist and politician by publishing accusations of sexual harassment in the wake of the #MeToo movement.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Uwimana-Nkusi v Rwanda (2021)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights held that Rwanda’s criminal defamation law was a violation of the right to freedom of expression and was neither necessary nor proportionate in a democratic society.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Rwanda · Nov 2022

X v Union of India (2021)

The High Court of Delhi, India ordered the police to remove content published without the subject’s consent on a website and search engines to de-index that content from their search results.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · India · Nov 2022