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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Module 11: Introduction to UN Mechanisms (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

The United Nations has several mechanisms that contribute to the promotion of human rights, including treaty bodies tasked with overseeing the implementation of core human rights treaties. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · Global · Sep 2022

Module 10: Violence Against Journalists (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

Violence against journalists, especially in retaliation for their work, poses a serious threat to freedom of expression, whether it takes the form of physical or online attacks. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

Asia · Sep 2022

Module 9: National Security (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

“National security” is a common justifications offered by states for limiting freedom of expression by journalists, bloggers, and media organs. However, it has the potential to be relied upon to quell dissent and cover up state abuses. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Asia · Sep 2022

Module 8: ‘False news’, misinformation and propaganda  (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

While acknowledging the social ills may be occasioned by false news and misinformation, courts and international standards indicate that general provisions which criminalise false news and misinformation violate the right to freedom of expression. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Asia · Sep 2022

Module 7: Cybercrimes (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

As access to the internet continues to grow rapidly in Asia, cybercrimes are becoming ever more prevalent and dangerous. However, laws which regulate criminal activity on the internet, or cybercrimes laws, are increasingly providing tools for the state to suppress dissent and the media. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · Sep 2022

Module 6: Hate Speech (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

International law requires states to ban hate speech which intentionally incites to violence, hatred or discrimination, but not that actual harm results. The biggest danger with hate speech is that vagueness in defining its meaning may allow such laws to be used as tools to stifle legitimate criticism or political speech. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Asia · Sep 2022

Module 5: Defamation (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

Defamation is frequently used to unjustly stifle dissent. However, it can provide a genuine remedy for those whose reputations are harmed by the statements or actions of others. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Asia · Sep 2022

Module 4: Data Privacy and Data Protection (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

The right to privacy is gaining prominence with increasing data flows and the need for the protection of personal information. Linked to data protection are the privacy-related concepts of the ‘right to be forgotten’, encryption and limits on government surveillance. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · Sep 2022

Module 3: Access to the Internet (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

An obligation on States to progressively promote access to the internet is emerging under international law. Practices such as internet shutdowns and blocking and filtering of content are severe restrictions on the right to freedom of expression. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Asia · Sep 2022

Module 2: Digital Rights (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

Freedom of expression online is uniquely powerful because of its borderless nature, but it has created new legal challenges and consequences. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Asia · Sep 2022