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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Protección de los defensores del medio ambiente: Factsheet

Jurisprudencia relevante para la protección de los periodistas medioambientales Los periodistas medioambientales informan sobre temas importantes y delicados como la deforestación, la minería ilegal, la confiscación de tierras y la contaminación. Proporcionan al público información esencial al investigar y sacar a la luz actividades privadas y estatales que repercuten negativamente en el medio ambiente. Al…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Canada · Europe · Kenya · North America · South Africa · Zimbabwe · May 2024

Militer en faveur des défenseurs de l’environnement: Factsheet

Jurisprudence relative à la protection des journalistes environnementaux Les journalistes environnementaux traitent de sujets importants et sensibles, tels que la déforestation, l’exploitation minière illégale, les saisies de terres et la pollution. En enquêtant et en mettant au jour les activités privées et publiques qui ont un impact négatif sur l’environnement, ils fournissent au public desinformations…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Canada · Europe · North America · South Africa · Zimbabwe · May 2024

Defending Environmental Defenders: Factsheet

Caselaw relevant to the protection of environmental journalists Environmental journalists report on important and sensitive topics, including deforestation, illegal mining, land seizures and pollution. By investigating and uncovering private and state activities that impact adversely on the environment, they provide the public with essential information. At the same time, they provide this critical service at…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Europe · North America · May 2024

SLAPPs in sub-Saharan Africa

Strategic Lawsuits against Public Participation (SLAPPs) are vexatious and meritless legal action, often taken against journalists and human rights activists who have expressed a critical opinion. They are intended to distract from the reporting, intimidate and discourage them from voicing their opinions, and divert resources from public interest reporting to defending the abusive suits. SLAPPs…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Kenya · Nigeria · South Africa · Oct 2023

Disinformation and Online Harassment against Women Journalists in sub-Saharan Africa

The rise of digital platforms, online news reporting and social media has fuelled disinformation and online harassment, often targeting women journalists. Disinformation refers to information that is “falsely and deliberately created to harm a person, social group, organisation or country.” Often, this takes the form of spreading lies about a journalist’s character or work and…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Kenya · Nigeria · South Africa · Oct 2023

Spyware & Digital Surveillance: Factsheet

In the world of advanced methods of data collection, graphics processing and algorithms, there is wide-spread concern that the increasing prevalence of spyware and digital surveillance pose a serious threat to human rights, most notably, privacy and freedom of expression. Spyware and surveillance may take various forms, including but not limited to electronic trackers, security…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Reporting at Protests: Factsheet

Protests can be newsworthy events, and in some cases can determine the political or social course of a country for years to come.  Covering protests is therefore a crucial part of a journalist’s responsibilities, but can often be one of the most dangerous.  According to the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, nearly half of all press freedom…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Photojournalism: Factsheet

What is photojournalism? Photojournalism is defined by Merriam-Webster dictionary as “journalism in which written copy is subordinate to pictorial usually photographic presentation of news stories or in which a high proportion of pictorial presentation is used.”  Photojournalism is a crucial aspect of modern reporting, and is becoming even more so in societies in which photography…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Gender & Online Harassment: Factsheet

Note: this Factsheet deals with issues of a sensitive nature relating to harassment and gender-based violence. The relationship between gender and online harassment Online harassment and intimidation through text messages, phone calls or social media — often known as cyberstalking or cyber-harassment — severely restricts the enjoyment that persons have of their rights online, particularly…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Defending the Media in Satire Cases: Factsheet

Despite such strong support for the protections which should be afforded to satire and the satirist, there is little case law which deals with the subject directly – at least in the international legal sphere – other than a handful of cases heard before the ECtHR.

Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Sep 2020