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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Emilio Palacio Urrutia v Ecuador (2021)

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights found that the criminalisation of the dissemination “of an opinion article, about a matter of public interest referred to a public official” criminalised under defamation law was a violation of freedom of expression.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Ecuador · South America · Nov 2022

Kimel v. Argentina (2008)

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled that the Argentinian state’s conviction of a journalist for criticising a judicial investigation was an unnecessary and disproportionate violation of freedom of expression, and ordered the state to reform the criminal laws protecting honour and reputation.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Argentina · South America · Nov 2022

The Case of São Paulo SubwWT: MDay Facial Recognition Cameras (2021)

A Civil Court in São Paulo, Brazil held that the use of facial recognition technology on a subway line was an infringement of the right to privacy of one’s image and to the freedom of information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Ministra Nancy Andrighi v Google Brasil Internet Ltd (2012)

The Superior Tribunal of Justice in Brazil held that search engines cannot be compelled to remove search results relating to a specific term or expression.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

De Queiroz v Google Brasil Internet Ltda. (2016)

The State Court of Appeals of São Paulo, Brazil held that an individual who had obtained criminal rehabilitation had a right to be forgotten and ordered the de-indexing of content about his criminal conviction.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Curi et al v Globo Comunicação e Participações S/A (2021)

The Brazilian Federal Supreme Court held that a general right to be forgotten is incompatible with the Federal Constitution.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

The Case of Nonconsensual Pornography Sent to Victim’s Parents (2021)

The Constitutional Court of Ecuador held that the storage and sharing of sexual photos without the consent of the victim were a violation of her constitutional rights to personal data protection, reputation, and intimacy.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Ecuador · South America · Nov 2022

Unconstitutionality of Article 55 of the Press Act (2021)

The Constitutional Court of Colombia held that a law that established a preferential civil liability regime for damages allegedly caused by opinions spread through mass communication channels could lead to self-censorship and was thus unconstitutional.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Colombia · South America · Nov 2022

The Case of the Brazil Fake News Inquiry (2021)

A Brazilian judge overseeing an inquiry ordered Facebook and Twitter to suspend the accounts of individuals under investigation for the “dissemination of fake news, false accusations, threats” and to block access to the accounts for all users irrespective of their location.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

UNESCO guide for amicus curiae interventions in freedom of expression cases

The UNESCO Guide for Amicus Curiae Interventions on Freedom of Expression Cases, developed with the support of Media Defence, seeks to equip civil society organizations with the basic tools to file effective amicus curiae interventions, and encourage them to intervene in cases where freedom of expression standards can be advanced or where the right to freedom of expression or the safety of journalists is at stake. The Guide provides practical information on how to file amicus curiae briefs and sets out strategic considerations – as well as do’s and don’ts – with the goal of helping organizations write the most impactful brief possible.

Africa · Asia · Europe · Global · North America · Oceania · South America · Sep 2021