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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.


Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Digital Rights Advocates: Interview with Rwandan Lawyer Louis Gitinywa

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · Rwanda · Nov 2020

Media Defence Manual on Litigating Freedom of Expression Cases in East Africa

This manual is designed to assist lawyers representing journalists and bloggers at the regional level in East Africa. It therefore concentrates on setting out the processes and procedures for filing and arguing human rights cases before the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the East African Court of Justice.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Burundi · Kenya · Rwanda · Tanzania · Uganda · Apr 2019

“The training has advanced our knowledge in an area that is lacking in East Africa at a time when these issues are most acute”

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Rwanda · Tanzania · Uganda · Jan 2018

Ingabire Victorie Umuhoza v The Republic of Rwanda (2017)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights grappled with a violation of freedom of expression and held that laws which limit free speech must be legitimate, necessary and proportional.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Rwanda · Apr 2017

Democratic Party v Secretary-General and the Attorneys General of the Republic of Uganda, Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi (2014)

The East African Court of Justice confirmed that once an applicant has shown an alleged violation of the EAC Treaty, the court must exercise its jurisdiction i.e., it does not have voluntary jurisdiction.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Burundi · Kenya · Rwanda · Uganda · Apr 2014