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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Okedara v Attorney General (2019)

The Court of Appeal in Lagos dismissed a challenge to the constitutionality of the Cybercrime Act, disagreeing with the Appellant that the provision was vague, overly broad and ambiguous, and threatened his rights to freedom of expression.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2021

Media Defence Training Manual on Litigation and Freedom of Expression in West Africa

To help equip lawyers to promote freedom of expression we are sharing our West Africa Regional Mechanisms Training Manual which provides tools and advice on litigating in defence of freedom of expression in West Africa.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Benin · Burkina · Gambia · Ghana · Guinea · Guinea-Bissau · Ivory Coast · Liberia · Mali · Niger · Nigeria · Senegal · Sierra Leone · Togo · Aug 2018

Social and Economic Rights Action Centre and Another v Nigeria (2002)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights argued that although the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights does not contain an express provision on the right to privacy, the right can – and should – be read into the African Charter through to the right to respect for life, the right to dignity,…

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2002

Constitutional Rights Project v Nigeria (1999)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights confirmed that there must be a legitimate reason for the limitation of right and that the limitation must be proportionate and necessary.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 1999

Constitutional Rights Project and Civil Liberties Organisation v Nigeria (1998)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights found that no situation could justify a wholesale interference with freedom of expression, as was the case with the mass arrests and banning of publications that followed the 1993 presidential elections in Nigeria.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 1998

SERAC v Nigeria (1996)

Although this matter did not pertain directly to digital rights, the ACHPR demonstrated its willingness to deal with non-state actors, state obligations, and to engage with NGOs.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 1996