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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.


Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Protección de los defensores del medio ambiente: Factsheet

Jurisprudencia relevante para la protección de los periodistas medioambientales Los periodistas medioambientales informan sobre temas importantes y delicados como la deforestación, la minería ilegal, la confiscación de tierras y la contaminación. Proporcionan al público información esencial al investigar y sacar a la luz actividades privadas y estatales que repercuten negativamente en el medio ambiente. Al…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Canada · Europe · Kenya · North America · South Africa · Zimbabwe · May 2024

SLAPPs in sub-Saharan Africa

Strategic Lawsuits against Public Participation (SLAPPs) are vexatious and meritless legal action, often taken against journalists and human rights activists who have expressed a critical opinion. They are intended to distract from the reporting, intimidate and discourage them from voicing their opinions, and divert resources from public interest reporting to defending the abusive suits. SLAPPs…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Kenya · Nigeria · South Africa · Oct 2023

Disinformation and Online Harassment against Women Journalists in sub-Saharan Africa

The rise of digital platforms, online news reporting and social media has fuelled disinformation and online harassment, often targeting women journalists. Disinformation refers to information that is “falsely and deliberately created to harm a person, social group, organisation or country.” Often, this takes the form of spreading lies about a journalist’s character or work and…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Kenya · Nigeria · South Africa · Oct 2023

Andama v Director of Public Prosecution (2019)

The Nairobi High Court in Kenya ruled that a provision criminalising the publication of “obscene information in electronic form” was an unjustifiable limitation of the rights to freedom of expression and to a fair trial.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Nov 2022

Okuta v Attorney General (2017)

The High Court of Kenya declared the offence of criminal defamation under section 194 of the Kenyan Penal Code to be unconstitutional.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Kenya · Nov 2022

Digital Rights Advocates: Interview with Kenyan Lawyer Mercy Mutemi

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · Kenya · Aug 2020

Nubian Rights Forum and Others v The Hon. Attorney General and Others (2020)

The High Court in Kenya held that a new digital identity system could only be implemented subject to the improvement of the existing data protection laws.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Apr 2020

Media Defence Manual on Litigating Freedom of Expression Cases in East Africa

This manual is designed to assist lawyers representing journalists and bloggers at the regional level in East Africa. It therefore concentrates on setting out the processes and procedures for filing and arguing human rights cases before the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights, the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the East African Court of Justice.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Burundi · Kenya · Rwanda · Tanzania · Uganda · Apr 2019

Training Kenyan lawyers on online freedom of speech

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Sep 2018

“The training has advanced our knowledge in an area that is lacking in East Africa at a time when these issues are most acute”

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Rwanda · Tanzania · Uganda · Jan 2018