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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Bhasin v Union of India; Azad v Union of India (2020)

The Supreme Court of India found that freedom of speech and expression and the freedom to practice any profession or occupation over the medium of the internet enjoys constitutional protection and that suspending internet services indefinitely is impermissible.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · India · Apr 2020

Shirin v State of Kerala (2019)

The Kerala High Court found the right to internet access to be a fundamental right and a part of the right to education as well as the right to privacy under the Constitution of India.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · India · Apr 2019

Justice K.S. Puttaswamy and Another v Union of India and Others (2017)

The Supreme Court of India declared that the right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty, and as part of the fundamental freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution of India.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · India · Apr 2017

Milestone Judgment for Internet Freedom in India

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · India · Nov 2015

Shreya Singhal v Union of India (2012)

The Supreme Court of India found that intermediaries are only liable when they have received actual knowledge from a court order, or have been notified by the government, and subsequently failed to remove or disable access to the information.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_police Cybercrimes · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · India · Apr 2012