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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content

The internet was created to facilitate the free flow of information, and as such offers an array of opportunities for the realisation of human rights. However, impediments to the internet’s use for the advancement of human rights seem to be growing.

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Defamation Liability Should Not Extend to Publishers for Hyperlinking – Media Defence Files Intervention to European Court

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Apr 2017

European Court Finds Turkey Violated Cumhuriyet Journalists’ Rights to Liberty and Security, Freedom of Expression, Detained in the Crackdown Following July 2016 Coup

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Asia · Turkey · Apr 2021

Explaining the Issues: The Right to be Forgotten

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · Dec 2020

Landmark Judgment: ECOWAS Court Finds Togo Violated FoE with Internet Shutdown

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Togo · Jun 2020

Media Defence Intervenes in European Court Case on Media’s Right to Access and Report from Defamation Proceedings

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Mar 2018

The European Court Considers Media Defence’s Joint Intervention in Important Decision on Intermediary Liability

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Europe · United Kingdom · Oct 2017

Media Defence Files Intervention at European Court Seeking to Protect Anonymity of Users Online

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Austria · Europe · Oct 2017

How Far Does the “Right to be Forgotten” Extend? Crucial Case Referred to Court of Justice of the European Union

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · France · Jul 2017