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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content

The internet was created to facilitate the free flow of information, and as such offers an array of opportunities for the realisation of human rights. However, impediments to the internet’s use for the advancement of human rights seem to be growing.

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Google LLC v Commission Nationale de l’Information et des Libertés (2019)

The Court of Justice of the European Union found that a de-listing order made in a member state of the EU did not mean that search results had to be removed from all the search engine’s domain name extensions globally.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · France · Apr 2019

Módulo 3: Acceso a internet (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

El derecho internacional no reconoce expresamente el derecho a Internet. Sin embargo, es ampliamente aceptado que el acceso a Internet permite el ejercicio de múltiplos derechos fundamentales.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Társaság a Szabadságjogokért v Hungary (2009)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the right to freedom of expression included the right to access information under the control of public authorities.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · Hungary · Apr 2009

Summary Module 1: Key Principles of International Law and Freedom of Expression (sub-Saharan Africa)

Overview of the right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Tamiz v United Kingdom (2017)

The European Court of Human Rights found that although Internet Service Providers (ISPs) perform an important function in facilitating access to information, ISPs should not be obliged to monitor content or proactively investigate potential defamatory remarks posted on their sites.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2017

SERAP v Federal Republic of Nigeria (2022)

The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice ruled that Nigeria’s banning of Twitter was unlawful and that access to Twitter is a “derivative right” that is “complementary to the enjoyment of the right to freedom of expression.”

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Nigeria · Nov 2022

Shirin v State of Kerala (2019)

The Kerala High Court found the right to internet access to be a fundamental right and a part of the right to education as well as the right to privacy under the Constitution of India.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · India · Apr 2019

Good v Republic of Botswana (2010)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights found that a professor’s right to freedom of expression had been violated when the state deported Mr Good on national security grounds for the publication of an article critical of Botswana’s presidential succession.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · Botswana · Apr 2010

Summary Module 2: Introduction to Digital Rights (sub-Saharan Africa)

Digital rights — which include the right to freedom of expression, privacy and access to information — are the same fundamental human rights as those enjoyed offline but adapted to a new age of technology

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Camera di Commercio, Industria, Artigianato e Agricoltura di Lecce v Salvatore Manni (2017)

The Court of Justice of the European Union dismissed a request to be “forgotten” from a public company register.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Italy · Apr 2017