Browse by theme

Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

record_voice_over
Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

phonelink_lock
Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

portable_wifi_off
Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

local_fire_department
Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

fingerprint
Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

local_police
Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

thumb_down_alt
Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

pan_tool
Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

dvr
False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

gavel
Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

Browse resource library

Show Filters

Filter by

Language

Region

Theme

Resource Type

Year

results found
portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content

The internet was created to facilitate the free flow of information, and as such offers an array of opportunities for the realisation of human rights. However, impediments to the internet’s use for the advancement of human rights seem to be growing.

View this theme navigate_next
Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights and Another v The Minister of State in the President’s Office Responsible for National Security and Others (2019)

The Zimbabwe High Court ruled that the government had no authority to order the internet shutdown that coincided with widespread protests in January 2019.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Zimbabwe · Apr 2019

United States v Alvarez (2012)

In the majority opinion of the United States Supreme Court, Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote that “[t]he remedy for speech that is false is speech that is true.  This is the ordinary course in a free society.”

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · US · Apr 2012

Summary Module 3: Access to the Internet (sub-Saharan Africa)

An express right to the internet has not been recognised in international law. However, it is widely accepted that access to the internet enables a variety of other fundamental rights.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Jan 2021

CM Pak Limited v The Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (2017)

The Islamabad High Court declared the cellular network shutdown by the Pakistani government illegal.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Pakistan · Apr 2017

The Gambia v Facebook (2021)

In a discovery request, the US District Court held that Facebook must disclose de-platformed content and internal investigation documents relating to the incitement of ethnic hatred against the Rohingyas in Myanmar.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · North America · US · Nov 2022

Kharitonov v Russia (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the blocking of a website as a consequence of a blocking order against another website which had the same IP address was a violation of the right to freedom of expression and information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Apr 2020

Shreya Singhal v Union of India (2012)

The Supreme Court of India found that intermediaries are only liable when they have received actual knowledge from a court order, or have been notified by the government, and subsequently failed to remove or disable access to the information.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_police Cybercrimes · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · India · Apr 2012

Summary Module 9: National Security (sub-Saharan Africa)

“National security” is one of the most common justifications offered by states for limiting freedom of expression but is also sometimes used to quell dissent and cover up state abuses.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Defamation Liability Should Not Extend to Publishers for Hyperlinking – Media Defence Files Intervention to European Court

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Apr 2017

The Case on Facebook’s Terms of Service (2021)

The German Federal Court of Justice ruled that Facebook’s terms of service on deleting user posts and blocking accounts for violations of its Community Standards were invalid because they failed to account for informing users and giving them an opportunity to respond.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Germany · Nov 2022