Browse by theme

Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

record_voice_over
Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

phonelink_lock
Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

portable_wifi_off
Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

local_fire_department
Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

fingerprint
Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

local_police
Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

thumb_down_alt
Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

pan_tool
Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

dvr
False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

gavel
Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

Browse resource library

Show Filters

Filter by

Language

Region

Theme

Resource Type

Year

results found
fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection

With technological developments leading to increased data flows and the concomitant need for the protection of personal information, the right to privacy is gaining prominence — and new meaning — around the world.

View this theme navigate_next
P.H. v O.G. (2016)

The Belgian Court of Cassation confirmed the broad interpretation given to the “right to be forgotten” by a Belgian Court of Appeal.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Belgium · Europe · Nov 2022

NT1 & NT2 v Google LLC (2018)

The England and Wales High Court ruled on requests for personal information to be “delisted” for “deindexed” from Google search results, upholding the request in one case and rejecting it in another.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2018

Biancardi v Italy (2021)

The European Court of Human Rights held that an online publisher’s failure to comply with a de-indexing request justified restricting the publisher’s freedom of expression by allowing the request.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Italy · Nov 2022

Ribalda and Others v Spain (2019)

The European Court of Human Rights upheld the right of a supermarket to utilise covert video-surveillance of employees which led to their dismissal.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · Spain · Apr 2019

De Queiroz v Google Brasil Internet Ltda. (2016)

The State Court of Appeals of São Paulo, Brazil held that an individual who had obtained criminal rehabilitation had a right to be forgotten and ordered the de-indexing of content about his criminal conviction.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Ministra Nancy Andrighi v Google Brasil Internet Ltd and Others (2012)

The Superior Court of Brazil held that search engines cannot be compelled to remove search results relating to a specific term or expression.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Brazil · South America · Apr 2012

Sharma v Union of India (2021)

In this ruling stemming from the Pegasus Spyware scandal, the Supreme Court of India ordered an independent inquiry into allegations that the government deployed the Pegasus spyware against various journalists, politicians, and dissidents.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Radio Twist v Slovakia (2005)

The European Court of Human Rights held that a radio station had not violated the rights of persons who were recorded because of the context and content of the conversation being clearly political in nature, and the subject-matter being of general interest, and because of the context of how the recording came to be in…

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · Slovakia · Apr 2005

Camera di Commercio, Industria, Artigianato e Agricoltura di Lecce v Salvatore Manni (2012)

The Court of Justice of the European Union declined to uphold a request to erase, anonymise or block data linking the applicant to the liquidation of his company contained in the companies register.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Italy · Nov 2022

Bosasa Operation (Pty) Ltd v Basson and Another (2012)

The High Court of South Africa held that journalists are not required to reveal their sources, subject to certain exceptions.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · South Africa · Apr 2012