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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection

With technological developments leading to increased data flows and the concomitant need for the protection of personal information, the right to privacy is gaining prominence — and new meaning — around the world.

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Delfi AS v Estonia (2013)

The European Court of Human Rights found that an online news portal was liable for offensive comments they allowed to be posted below one of their news articles.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Estonia · Europe · Apr 2013

Module 4: Data Privacy and Data Protection (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

The right to privacy is gaining prominence with increasing data flows and the need for the protection of personal information. Linked to data protection are the privacy-related concepts of the ‘right to be forgotten’, encryption and limits on government surveillance. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · Sep 2022

Maximillian Schrems v Data Protection Commissioner (2015)

The Court of Justice of the European Union held that data transferred from the EU to a country without sufficient data protection laws (the US) violated the data subject’s rights, and declared the Safe Harbour Decision invalid.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · Ireland · Apr 2015

Reporting at Protests: Factsheet

Protests can be newsworthy events, and in some cases can determine the political or social course of a country for years to come.  Covering protests is therefore a crucial part of a journalist’s responsibilities, but can often be one of the most dangerous.  According to the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, nearly half of all press freedom…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Google Spain SL v Agencia Española de Protección de Datos (2014)

The Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that the right to be forgotten means that personal information that is “inadequate, irrelevant or no longer relevant, or excessive” must be erased by the search engine, but that the right should not apply to information that is relevant for the public interest.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · Spain · Apr 2014

Gaughran v United Kingdom (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the indefinite retention of data of a man who had a spent conviction was a violation of his privacy rights.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2020

amaBhungane v Minister of Justice (2021)

The Constitutional Court of South Africa held that the Regulation of Interception of Communications Act (RICA), which regulated mass surveillance in South Africa, was unconstitutional.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Apr 2021

Spyware & Digital Surveillance: Factsheet

In the world of advanced methods of data collection, graphics processing and algorithms, there is wide-spread concern that the increasing prevalence of spyware and digital surveillance pose a serious threat to human rights, most notably, privacy and freedom of expression. Spyware and surveillance may take various forms, including but not limited to electronic trackers, security…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Google LLC v Commission Nationale de l’Information et des Libertés (2019)

The Court of Justice of the European Union found that a de-listing order made in a member state of the EU did not mean that search results had to be removed from all the search engine’s domain name extensions globally.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · France · Apr 2019

Digital Rights Ireland Ltd v Minister of Communications, Marine and Natural Resources et al (2014)

The European Court of Justice held that a European Union directive requiring Internet Service Providers to store telecommunications data in order to facilitate the prevention and prosecution of crime was found to be invalid.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Austria · Europe · Ireland · Apr 2014