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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection

With technological developments leading to increased data flows and the concomitant need for the protection of personal information, the right to privacy is gaining prominence — and new meaning — around the world.

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Summary Module 4: Data Privacy and Data Protection (sub-Saharan Africa)

The right to privacy is gaining prominence with increasing data flows and the concomitant need for the protection of personal information.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Jan 2021

Módulo 4: Privacidad digital y protección de datos (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

El derecho a la privacidad está cobrando importancia con el aumento del flujo de datos y la necesidad concomitante de proteger la información personal.
En el contexto americano, existen diferentes instrumentos que rigen la protección de datos, tales como la Convención Americana sobre Derechos Humanos y la Declaración Americana de los Derechos y Deberes del Hombre.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Maximillian Schrems v Data Protection Commissioner (2015)

The Court of Justice of the European Union held that data transferred from the EU to a country without sufficient data protection laws (the US) violated the data subject’s rights, and declared the Safe Harbour Decision invalid.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · Ireland · Apr 2015

Module de synthèse 4 : Vie privée et protection des données (Afrique subsaharienne)

Le droit à la vie privée prend de plus en plus d’importance avec l’augmentation des flux de données et la nécessité concomitante de protéger les informations personnelles.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Apr 2021

Big Brother Watch v United Kingdom (2018)

The European Court of Human Rights found some aspects of the UK’s mass surveillance regime to be in violation of the right to privacy and the right to freedom of expression.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2018

Ministra Nancy Andrighi v Google Brasil Internet Ltd (2012)

The Superior Tribunal of Justice in Brazil held that search engines cannot be compelled to remove search results relating to a specific term or expression.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Summary Module 7: Cybercrimes (sub-Saharan Africa)

As access to the internet continues to grow, cybercrimes are becoming ever more prevalent. However, cybercrime laws can provide tools for the state to suppress dissent and the media.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Jan 2021

Plaintiff X v PrimaDaNoi (2015)

Italy’s Supreme Court of Cassation held that the public interest in an article diminished after two and a half years, and that sensitive and private information should not be available to the public indefinitely.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · Italy · Apr 2015

Module 4: Data Privacy and Data Protection (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

The right to privacy is gaining prominence with increasing data flows and the need for the protection of personal information. Linked to data protection are the privacy-related concepts of the ‘right to be forgotten’, encryption and limits on government surveillance. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · Sep 2022

Preliminary Opinion from Court of Justice of the European Union in Google v CNIL case about the right to be forgotten affirms the need to protect freedom of expression

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · France · Jan 2019