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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection

With technological developments leading to increased data flows and the concomitant need for the protection of personal information, the right to privacy is gaining prominence — and new meaning — around the world.

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Plaintiff X v PrimaDaNoi (2015)

Italy’s Supreme Court of Cassation held that the public interest in an article diminished after two and a half years, and that sensitive and private information should not be available to the public indefinitely.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · Italy · Apr 2015

Module 4: Data Privacy and Data Protection (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

The right to privacy is gaining prominence with increasing data flows and the need for the protection of personal information. Linked to data protection are the privacy-related concepts of the ‘right to be forgotten’, encryption and limits on government surveillance. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · Sep 2022

Preliminary Opinion from Court of Justice of the European Union in Google v CNIL case about the right to be forgotten affirms the need to protect freedom of expression

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · France · Jan 2019

Arthur v Ghana Telecommunications Company (2021)

The High Court of Ghana ordered the National Communications Authority to stop collecting personal information from mobile phone subscribers and the government to delete data already collected within fourteen days.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Ghana · Nov 2022

Summary Module 9: National Security (sub-Saharan Africa)

“National security” is one of the most common justifications offered by states for limiting freedom of expression but is also sometimes used to quell dissent and cover up state abuses.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Lost in the Web: Navigating the Legal Maze Online

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · May 2015

X v YouTube (2021)

The High Court of Delhi, India directed internet intermediaries to remove explicit videos of an actor that had been uploaded without her consent.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Google LLC v Commission Nationale de l’Information et des Libertés (2019)

The Court of Justice of the European Union found that a de-listing order made in a member state of the EU did not mean that search results had to be removed from all the search engine’s domain name extensions globally.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · France · Apr 2019

Lloyd v. Google LLC (2021)

The United Kingdom Supreme Court held that Google was not liable to pay damages for unlawfully collecting data because damages cannot be granted without an individual assessment of the damages payable to the aggrieved.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · United Kingdom · Nov 2022

Social and Economic Rights Action Centre and Another v Nigeria (2002)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights argued that although the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights does not contain an express provision on the right to privacy, the right can – and should – be read into the African Charter through to the right to respect for life, the right to dignity,…

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2002