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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.


Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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thumb_down_alt Hate speech

In order to uphold freedom of expression, there is a need for clear and narrowly circumscribed definitions of ‘hate speech,’ which do not conflate it with speech that is offensive.

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Free Speech Organisations Submit Amicus Brief in Inter-American Court of Human Rights Case on Criminal Defamation

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · South America · Venezuela · Apr 2021

European Court clarifies intermediary liability standard

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Europe · Hungary · Feb 2016

State Controlled Media Regulation is a Threat to Press Freedom: Media Defence Files an Amicus Brief to European Court of Human Rights

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Mar 2017

Charlie Hebdo and Hate Speech: Don’t Prosecute the Messenger

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Europe · France · Sep 2015

In fear of cartoons

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Denmark · Europe · France · Jun 2015

Explaining the Issues: Criminal Libel

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Oct 2013