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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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record_voice_over Freedom of expression

Freedom of expression is a protected fundamental human right, but it is increasingly under threat due to dramatic changes to the media and information eco-system occasioned by the rise of the internet.

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Chavunduka & Another v Minister of Home Affairs & Another (2000)

The Zimbabwe Supreme Court found that a law criminalising the publication of false statements was unconstitutional on the basis that in being too vague it exerted an unacceptable ‘chilling effect’ on freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Zimbabwe · Apr 2000

Module de synthèse 1 : Principes clés du droit international et de la liberté d’expression (Afrique subsaharienne)

Aperçu du droit à la liberté d’expression et comment ce droit est protégé par le droit international.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Africa · Apr 2021

WASHLITE v Fox News (2020)

The Washington Superior Court found that Fox News’ repeated claims that COVID-19 was/is a hoax were protected under the freedom of expression protections of the First Amendment.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · North America · US · Apr 2020

Brown v Economic Freedom Fighters (2019)

The South Gauteng High Court in South Africa held that the failure of a political party to condemn its supporters’ harassment of and threats against a journalist violated the South African Electoral Code.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Summary Module 9: National Security (sub-Saharan Africa)

“National security” is one of the most common justifications offered by states for limiting freedom of expression but is also sometimes used to quell dissent and cover up state abuses.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights v. Zimbabwe (2009)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights held that Zimbabwe violated various rights by using force instead of seeking a Court order to stop a media outlet from operating illegally under a media registration law.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Zimbabwe · Nov 2022

Herrera-Ulloa v Costa Rica (2004)

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights held that Costa Rica’s criminal defamation law violated the American Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Costa Rica · North America · Apr 2004

Module de synthèse 9 : Sécurité nationale (Afrique subsaharienne)

La « sécurité nationale » est l’une des justifications les plus courantes offertes par les États pour limiter la liberté d’expression des journalistes, des blogueurs et des organes de presse.  Cependant, on peut s’appuyer sur elle pour réprimer la dissidence et dissimuler les abus de l’État.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Africa · Apr 2021

Strasbourg Court Finds Hungary Violated Journalists’ Right of Access to Parliament

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Europe · Hungary · May 2020

SANEF v Black Land First (2017)

The High Court of South Africa ordered the Black First Land First organization to refrain from acts of intimidation, harassment, and threats directed at certain journalists.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022