Browse by theme

Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

record_voice_over
Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

phonelink_lock
Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

portable_wifi_off
Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

local_fire_department
Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

fingerprint
Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

local_police
Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

thumb_down_alt
Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

pan_tool
Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

dvr
False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

gavel
Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

Browse resource library

Show Filters

Filter by

Language

Region

Theme

Resource Type

Year

results found
phonelink_lock Digital rights

The term ‘digital rights’ speaks to questions around how the same rights that have always been fundamental to all humans — such as freedom of expression, privacy and access to information — are exercised and protected in the era of the internet, social media and technology.

View this theme navigate_next
Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights and Another v The Minister of State in the President’s Office Responsible for National Security and Others (2019)

The Zimbabwe High Court ruled that the government had no authority to order the internet shutdown that coincided with widespread protests in January 2019.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Zimbabwe · Apr 2019

P.H. v O.G. (2016)

The Belgian Court of Cassation confirmed the broad interpretation given to the “right to be forgotten” by a Belgian Court of Appeal.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Belgium · Europe · Nov 2022

Emilio Palacio Urrutia v Ecuador (2021)

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights found that the criminalisation of the dissemination “of an opinion article, about a matter of public interest referred to a public official” criminalised under defamation law was a violation of freedom of expression.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Ecuador · South America · Nov 2022

Kharitonov v Russia (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the blocking of a website as a consequence of a blocking order against another website which had the same IP address was a violation of the right to freedom of expression and information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Apr 2020

Bosasa Operation (Pty) Ltd v Basson (2012)

The South Gauteng High Court in South Africa ruled that a journalist should not be required to reveal their sources and that doing so would infringe on the freedom of the press.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Standard Verlagsgesellschaft mbH v Austria (no. 3) (2021)

The European Court of Human Rights ruled that requiring a media company to disclose the identities of registered users that had made comments on its site was a violation of freedom of expression due to the political nature of the comments and the failure to run a test on balancing competing interests.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Austria · Europe · Nov 2022

amaBhungane v Minister of Justice (2021)

The Constitutional Court of South Africa held that the Regulation of Interception of Communications Act (RICA), which regulated mass surveillance in South Africa, was unconstitutional.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Apr 2021

Keskin Kalem Yayıncılık v Ticaret A.Ş. (2021)

The Turkish Constitutional Court held that blocking access to news articles on account of a violation of reputation and personal rights violated the right to freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Asia · Turkey · Nov 2022

Okuta v Attorney General (2017)

The High Court of Kenya declared the offence of criminal defamation under section 194 of the Kenyan Penal Code to be unconstitutional.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Kenya · Nov 2022

Sharma v Union of India (2021)

In this ruling stemming from the Pegasus Spyware scandal, the Supreme Court of India ordered an independent inquiry into allegations that the government deployed the Pegasus spyware against various journalists, politicians, and dissidents.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · India · Nov 2022