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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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phonelink_lock Digital rights

The term ‘digital rights’ speaks to questions around how the same rights that have always been fundamental to all humans — such as freedom of expression, privacy and access to information — are exercised and protected in the era of the internet, social media and technology.

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Federation of African Journalists v The Gambia (2018)

The ECOWAS Court of Justice delivered a landmark judgment that the rights of four journalists had been violated by state authorities when security agents arbitrarily arrested, harassed and detained them under inhumane conditions, and forced them into exile for fear of persecution.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Gambia · Apr 2018

Keskin Kalem Yayıncılık v Ticaret A.Ş. (2021)

The Turkish Constitutional Court held that blocking access to news articles on account of a violation of reputation and personal rights violated the right to freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Asia · Turkey · Nov 2022

Advanced Module 1: General Overview of Trends in Digital Rights Globally (sub-Saharan Africa)

Sets out trends and expected developments in the context of the right of access to information, particularly trends that pose a threat to access to information.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Okuta v Attorney General (2017)

The High Court of Kenya declared the offence of criminal defamation under section 194 of the Kenyan Penal Code to be unconstitutional.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Kenya · Nov 2022

Summary Module 1: Key Principles of International Law and Freedom of Expression (sub-Saharan Africa)

Overview of the right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Sharma v Union of India (2021)

In this ruling stemming from the Pegasus Spyware scandal, the Supreme Court of India ordered an independent inquiry into allegations that the government deployed the Pegasus spyware against various journalists, politicians, and dissidents.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · India · Nov 2022

10 Human Rights Organisations v United Kingdom (2018)

The European Court of Human Rights was faced with a matter regarding the British government’s power to engage in surveillance and whether its bulk interception regime was a violation of the right to privacy.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2018

X v YouTube (2021)

The High Court of Delhi, India directed internet intermediaries to remove explicit videos of an actor that had been uploaded without her consent.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Advanced Module 3: Criminalisation of Online Speech (sub-Saharan Africa)

Sets out the applicable international human rights standards and provides an overview of fundamental international and regional legal principles.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Andama v Director of Public Prosecution (2019)

The Nairobi High Court in Kenya ruled that a provision criminalising the publication of “obscene information in electronic form” was an unjustifiable limitation of the rights to freedom of expression and to a fair trial.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Nov 2022