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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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phonelink_lock Digital rights

The term ‘digital rights’ speaks to questions around how the same rights that have always been fundamental to all humans — such as freedom of expression, privacy and access to information — are exercised and protected in the era of the internet, social media and technology.

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The Case of São Paulo SubwWT: MDay Facial Recognition Cameras (2021)

A Civil Court in São Paulo, Brazil held that the use of facial recognition technology on a subway line was an infringement of the right to privacy of one’s image and to the freedom of information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Digital Rights Advocates: Interview with Rwandan Lawyer Louis Gitinywa

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · Rwanda · Nov 2020

Burundi Journalists’ Union v Attorney General of the Republic of Burundi (2013)

Following a challenge brought by Burundi Journalists Union, the East African Court of Justice confirmed that parts of Burundi’s Press Law placed an impermissible restriction on journalists by prohibiting them from distributing certain types of information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · Burundi · Apr 2013

Module de synthèse 2 : Introduction aux droits numériques (Afrique subsaharienne)

Les droits numériques (qui comprennent le droit à la liberté d’expression, à la vie privée et à l’accès à l’information) sont les mêmes droits fondamentaux de l’homme que ceux dont on jouit hors ligne, mais adaptés à une nouvelle ère technologique.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · Apr 2021

Kharitonov v Russia (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the blocking of a website as a consequence of a blocking order against another website which had the same IP address was a violation of the right to freedom of expression and information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Apr 2020

Nkosi v Mazwai (2022)

The South Gauteng High Court of South Africa held that statements made online alleging sexual violence committed by a well-known DJ were defamatory.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Economic Freedom Fighters v Manuel (2020)

In an appeal of the 2019 High Court judgment, the Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa ruled that the EFF had defamed a former politician but found that the High Court had incorrectly quantified the damages to be awarded.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Partners: How Human Rights Platform Has Used Strategic Litigation to Defend Press Freedom in Ukraine

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Europe · Ukraine · Dec 2020

Burundi Journalists Union v The Attorney-General of the Republic of Burundi (2015)

The East African Court of Justice found that a Burundian law that restricted disseminating information that may be seen to be critical of the state, and forced journalists to reveal their sources was a violation of the EAC Treaty.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Burundi · Apr 2015

Mapping Digital Rights and Online Freedom of Expression Litigation in East, West and Southern Africa (2021)

The report begins with an overview of the digital rights landscape and an introduction to the research methodology, before delving into recent developments in seven themes of particular relevance at present — (i) defamation; (ii) national security, counter-terrorism and public order laws; (iii) laws restricting online content and access; (iv) internet shutdowns; (v) cybercrime legislation; (vi) media regulation and newsgathering activities; and (vii) data protection.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Aug 2021