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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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local_fire_department Defamation & reputation

While defamation laws aim to provide individuals with a remedy for public statements that may harm their reputation or honour, they frequently come into conflict with the right to freedom of expression.

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Summary Module 5: Defamation (sub-Saharan Africa)

Defamation is frequently used to unjustly stifle dissent. However, it can provide a genuine remedy for those harmed by the statements or actions of others.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Jan 2021

Társaság a Szabadságjogokért v Hungary (2009)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the right to freedom of expression included the right to access information under the control of public authorities.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · Hungary · Apr 2009

X v Union of India (2021)

The High Court of Delhi, India ordered the police to remove content published without the subject’s consent on a website and search engines to de-index that content from their search results.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Federation of African Journalists v The Gambia (2018)

The ECOWAS Court of Justice delivered a landmark judgment that the rights of four journalists had been violated by state authorities when security agents arbitrarily arrested, harassed and detained them under inhumane conditions, and forced them into exile for fear of persecution.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Gambia · Apr 2018

SLAPPs in sub-Saharan Africa

Strategic Lawsuits against Public Participation (SLAPPs) are vexatious and meritless legal action, often taken against journalists and human rights activists who have expressed a critical opinion. They are intended to distract from the reporting, intimidate and discourage them from voicing their opinions, and divert resources from public interest reporting to defending the abusive suits. SLAPPs…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Kenya · Nigeria · South Africa · Oct 2023

Summary Module 10: Introduction to Litigating Digital Rights in Africa (sub-Saharan Africa)

Strategic litigation is a powerful tool to advance digital rights and it is increasingly being used in a variety of different and innovative ways.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Good v Republic of Botswana (2010)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights found that a professor’s right to freedom of expression had been violated when the state deported Mr Good on national security grounds for the publication of an article critical of Botswana’s presidential succession.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · Botswana · Apr 2010

Uwimana-Nkusi v Rwanda (2021)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights held that Rwanda’s criminal defamation law was a violation of the right to freedom of expression and was neither necessary nor proportionate in a democratic society.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Rwanda · Nov 2022

Peta v Minister of Law, Constitutional Affairs and Human Rights (2018)

The Constitutional Court of Lesotho struck down the provisions of the Penal Code relating to criminal defamation stating that they violated the right to freedom of expression as protected in the Lesotho Constitution.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Lesotho · Apr 2018

Advanced Module 1: General Overview of Trends in Digital Rights Globally (sub-Saharan Africa)

Sets out trends and expected developments in the context of the right of access to information, particularly trends that pose a threat to access to information.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Jun 2024