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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.


Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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local_police Cybercrimes

In the digital world, increases in internet access, e-commerce and economic development have resulted in new forms of crime online, called cybercrime, and the resultant urgent need for cybersecurity.

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Disini v the Secretary of Justice (2014)

The Supreme Court of Philippines ruled that several provisions of the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 violated freedom of expression and privacy.

local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · Philippines · Apr 2014

Attorney General of Malaysia v Mkini Dotcom Sdn Bhd (2021)

The Federal Court of Malaysia held that an online news website which had published comments by its subscribers which criticised the judiciary was guilty of contempt of court, despite the website removing the comments within twelve minutes of being informed by the police.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_police Cybercrimes · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Malaysia · Nov 2022

Okedara v Attorney General (2019)

The Court of Appeal in Lagos dismissed a challenge to the constitutionality of the Cybercrime Act, disagreeing with the Appellant that the provision was vague, overly broad and ambiguous, and threatened his rights to freedom of expression.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2021

The Case of Nonconsensual Pornography Sent to Victim’s Parents (2021)

The Constitutional Court of Ecuador held that the storage and sharing of sexual photos without the consent of the victim were a violation of her constitutional rights to personal data protection, reputation, and intimacy.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Ecuador · South America · Nov 2022

Nyanzi v Uganda (2017)

The United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention found that the deprivation of liberty of a well-known Ugandan academic and activist, who was arrested and charged under the Computer Misuse Act, 2011, after writing a number of Facebook posts that were critical of the Ugandan President and the First Lady, was arbitrary.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Uganda · Apr 2017

The Case of the Egyptian TikTok Influencers (2021)

The Court of Appeals in Cairo acquitted one woman and upheld the conviction of another who had been sentenced to imprisonment for violating “family principles and values upheld by Egyptian society” by posting “indecent” videos and images.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Egypt · Nov 2022

Gambia Press Union v Attorney General (2018)

The Supreme Court of The Gambia held that the provisions in the Criminal Code relating to sedition and the publication of false news were constitutional.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Gambia · Nov 2022

Rout v State of Odisha (2020)

The High Court of Orissa, India held that the right to be forgotten is an integral part of the right to privacy and that there must be a mechanism through which a victim can protect her privacy by having the content deleted from the servers of intermediaries.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · India · Nov 2022

The Case of the Brazil Fake News Inquiry (2021)

A Brazilian judge overseeing an inquiry ordered Facebook and Twitter to suspend the accounts of individuals under investigation for the “dissemination of fake news, false accusations, threats” and to block access to the accounts for all users irrespective of their location.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Brazil · South America · Nov 2022

Segerman vs Peterson (2022)

The High Court of South Africa overturned a protection order granted by a Cape Town Magistrate’s Court that prevented a woman from speaking about her rape by her ex-boyfriend.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022