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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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local_police Cybercrimes

In the digital world, increases in internet access, e-commerce and economic development have resulted in new forms of crime online, called cybercrime, and the resultant urgent need for cybersecurity.

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Packingham v State of North Carolina (2017)

The Supreme Court of the United States found a law in North Carolina to be in violation of the First Amendment because it made it a felony for a registered sex offender “to access a commercial social networking Web site where the sex offender knows that the site permits minor children to become members or…

local_police Cybercrimes · North America · US · Apr 2017

Emerging Trend: Surveillance & Encryption

In the digital world, in which our communications increasingly occur online or through digital channels and where we leave an ever-growing trail of data in the wake of so many of our daily activities, digital surveillance is a growing trend and a potential threat to freedom of expression and privacy.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Summary Module 1: Key Principles of International Law and Freedom of Expression (sub-Saharan Africa)

Overview of the right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

X v Union of India (2021)

The High Court of Delhi, India ordered the police to remove content published without the subject’s consent on a website and search engines to de-index that content from their search results.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Andare v Attorney General of Kenya (2015)

The High Court of Kenya emphasised that the state has a duty to demonstrate that cybercrimes laws are permissible in a free and democratic society, to establish the relationship between the limitation and its purpose, and to show that there were no less restrictive means to achieve the purpose intended.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Apr 2015

Emerging Trend: Intermediary Liability

The rise of the ‘big tech giants’ has occasioned dramatic changes in the global information eco-system, including the ways in which people access news and public information, and how the news media generates income and connects with their audiences. It has also created complications with how illegal or rights-violating content, such as hate speech, is dealt with.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Summary Module 2: Introduction to Digital Rights (sub-Saharan Africa)

Digital rights — which include the right to freedom of expression, privacy and access to information — are the same fundamental human rights as those enjoyed offline but adapted to a new age of technology

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Attorney General of Malaysia v Mkini Dotcom Sdn Bhd (2021)

The Federal Court of Malaysia held that an online news website which had published comments by its subscribers which criticised the judiciary was guilty of contempt of court, despite the website removing the comments within twelve minutes of being informed by the police.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_police Cybercrimes · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Malaysia · Nov 2022

Disini v the Secretary of Justice (2014)

The Supreme Court of Philippines ruled that several provisions of the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 violated freedom of expression and privacy.

local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · Philippines · Apr 2014

Module de synthèse 7 : Cybercriminalité (Afrique subsaharienne)

Alors que l’accès à l’Internet continue de se développer rapidement en Afrique, la cybercriminalité devient de plus en plus répandue et dangereuse.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Apr 2021