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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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local_police Cybercrimes

In the digital world, increases in internet access, e-commerce and economic development have resulted in new forms of crime online, called cybercrime, and the resultant urgent need for cybersecurity.

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Disini v the Secretary of Justice (2014)

The Supreme Court of Philippines ruled that several provisions of the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 violated freedom of expression and privacy.

local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · Philippines · Apr 2014

Module de synthèse 7 : Cybercriminalité

Alors que l’accès à l’Internet continue de se développer rapidement en Afrique, la cybercriminalité devient de plus en plus répandue et dangereuse.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Apr 2021

Summary Module 4: Data Privacy and Data Protection

The right to privacy is gaining prominence with increasing data flows and the concomitant need for the protection of personal information.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Jan 2021

Okedara v Attorney General (2019)

The Court of Appeal in Lagos dismissed a challenge to the constitutionality of the Cybercrime Act, disagreeing with the Appellant that the provision was vague, overly broad and ambiguous, and threatened his rights to freedom of expression.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2021

Module 7: Cybercrimes (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

As access to the internet continues to grow rapidly in Asia, cybercrimes are becoming ever more prevalent and dangerous. However, laws which regulate criminal activity on the internet, or cybercrimes laws, are increasingly providing tools for the state to suppress dissent and the media. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · Sep 2022

Summary Module 7: Cybercrimes

As access to the internet continues to grow, cybercrimes are becoming ever more prevalent. However, cybercrime laws can provide tools for the state to suppress dissent and the media.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Jan 2021

Nyanzi v Uganda (2017)

The United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention found that the deprivation of liberty of a well-known Ugandan academic and activist, who was arrested and charged under the Computer Misuse Act, 2011, after writing a number of Facebook posts that were critical of the Ugandan President and the First Lady, was arbitrary.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Uganda · Apr 2017

Summary Module 10: Introduction to Litigating Digital Rights in Africa

Strategic litigation is a powerful tool to advance digital rights and it is increasingly being used in a variety of different and innovative ways.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Gender & Online Harassment: Factsheet

Note: this Factsheet deals with issues of a sensitive nature relating to harassment and gender-based violence. The relationship between gender and online harassment Online harassment and intimidation through text messages, phone calls or social media — often known as cyberstalking or cyber-harassment — severely restricts the enjoyment that persons have of their rights online, particularly…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Advanced Module 1: General Overview of Trends in Digital Rights Globally

Sets out trends and expected developments in the context of the right of access to information, particularly trends that pose a threat to access to information.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020