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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.


Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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local_police Cybercrimes

In the digital world, increases in internet access, e-commerce and economic development have resulted in new forms of crime online, called cybercrime, and the resultant urgent need for cybersecurity.

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SANEF v Black Land First (2017)

The High Court of South Africa ordered the Black First Land First organization to refrain from acts of intimidation, harassment, and threats directed at certain journalists.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Training Kenyan lawyers on online freedom of speech

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Sep 2018

The Incorporated Trustees of Laws and Rights Awareness Initiatives v Nigeria (2020)

The ECOWAS Community Court of Justice ordered Nigeria to repeal its cybercrime legislation which was held to violate the right to freedom of expression.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Nigeria · Nov 2022

Okedara v Attorney General (2019)

The Court of Appeal in Lagos dismissed a challenge to the constitutionality of the Cybercrime Act, disagreeing with the Appellant that the provision was vague, overly broad and ambiguous, and threatened his rights to freedom of expression.

local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2021

Chipenzi v The People (2014)

The High Court of Zambia found that a provision of Zambia’s Penal Code that prohibited the publication of false information likely to cause public fear, violated the Constitution as it did not amount to a reasonable justification for limiting the freedom of expression.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Zambia · Nov 2022

Nubian Rights Forum and Others v The Hon. Attorney General and Others (2020)

The High Court in Kenya held that a new digital identity system could only be implemented subject to the improvement of the existing data protection laws.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Apr 2020

Módulo 7: Cibercrímenes (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

Aunque existen distintas normativas que castigan determinadas conductas como tal, no existe una definición legal y común sobre el cibercrimen a nivel interamericano. No obstante, se acude a esta figura cuando las conductas afectan la integridad, confidencialidad y disponibilidad de la información contenida en sistemas informáticos, de redes o de datos y, además, cuando se hace uso indebido del Internet.

local_police Cybercrimes · Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Gender & Online Harassment: Factsheet

Note: this Factsheet deals with issues of a sensitive nature relating to harassment and gender-based violence. The relationship between gender and online harassment Online harassment and intimidation through text messages, phone calls or social media — often known as cyberstalking or cyber-harassment — severely restricts the enjoyment that persons have of their rights online, particularly…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Attorney General v N.F. (2018)

The Court of Cassation of Tunis upheld the acquittal of a woman who had been charged with publishing false news threatening public order because her act of deleting the post had neutralised the intent required.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_police Cybercrimes · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Tunisia · Nov 2022

Maria Ressa: Award-Winning Journalist Facing 6 Years in Prison

local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · Philippines · Jun 2020