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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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pan_tool Censorship by private actors

The internet has given extraordinary decision-making power to private actors, who often face little scrutiny or oversight over their behaviour and how it may affect access to information and freedom of expression.

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A chance to set a Europe-wide precedent on hyperlinking

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Hungary · Jun 2016

Milestone Judgment for Internet Freedom in India

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · India · Nov 2015

Lost in the Web: Navigating the Legal Maze Online

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · May 2015

“The big guys don’t care about winning – they want to damage the lives of journalists.”

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Latvia · Mar 2015

ECtHR Vindicates Hidden Camera’s Role in Watchdog Journalism

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · Switzerland · Mar 2015

Explaining the Issues: The Right to be Forgotten

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · Dec 2020

Explaining the Issues: Internet Shutdowns

phonelink_lock Digital rights · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Oct 2020

How Far Does the “Right to be Forgotten” Extend? Crucial Case Referred to Court of Justice of the European Union

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Europe · France · Jul 2017

World Press Freedom Day Series: Citizen Journalist Elena Popa

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Austria · Europe · Germany · May 2020