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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Defending the Media in Satire Cases: Factsheet

Despite such strong support for the protections which should be afforded to satire and the satirist, there is little case law which deals with the subject directly – at least in the international legal sphere – other than a handful of cases heard before the ECtHR.

Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Sep 2020

Advanced Module 2: Restricting Access and Content (sub-Saharan Africa)

Provides an overview of the current mechanisms through which access to the internet and access to content is restricted.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Jun 2024

Módulo 9: Seguridad nacional (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

El derecho a la libertad de expresión no es absoluto y admite restricciones, las cuales deben supeditarse al test tripartito de legalidad, legitimidad y necesidad y proporcionalidad en una sociedad democrática.
La procedencia de una restricción sobre el derecho a la libertad de expresión es excepcional, de manera que busca proteger el derecho de los demás, o la protección de la seguridad nacional, el orden público, la salud o moralidad públicas.

Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Photojournalism: Factsheet

What is photojournalism? Photojournalism is defined by Merriam-Webster dictionary as “journalism in which written copy is subordinate to pictorial usually photographic presentation of news stories or in which a high proportion of pictorial presentation is used.”  Photojournalism is a crucial aspect of modern reporting, and is becoming even more so in societies in which photography…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

UNESCO guide for amicus curiae interventions in freedom of expression cases

The UNESCO Guide for Amicus Curiae Interventions on Freedom of Expression Cases, developed with the support of Media Defence, seeks to equip civil society organizations with the basic tools to file effective amicus curiae interventions, and encourage them to intervene in cases where freedom of expression standards can be advanced or where the right to freedom of expression or the safety of journalists is at stake. The Guide provides practical information on how to file amicus curiae briefs and sets out strategic considerations – as well as do’s and don’ts – with the goal of helping organizations write the most impactful brief possible.

Africa · Asia · Europe · Global · North America · Oceania · South America · Sep 2021

Advanced Module 3: Criminalisation of Online Speech (sub-Saharan Africa)

Sets out the applicable international human rights standards and provides an overview of fundamental international and regional legal principles.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Jun 2024

Módulo 10: Violencia contra periodistas (serie de módulos sobre américa latina)

En América Latina, la violencia se ha constituido como un mecanismo de intimidación contra la prensa que tiene como finalidad silenciar a quienes informan sobre asuntos de interés público.
Frente al fenómeno de violencia contra la prensa, los Estados deben proporcionar un entorno favorable para el ejercicio de la actividad periodística. Por lo tanto, deben desarrollar políticas integrales para la prevención, protección y procuración de justicia.

Latin America · North America · South America · Jan 2023

Reporting at Protests: Factsheet

Protests can be newsworthy events, and in some cases can determine the political or social course of a country for years to come.  Covering protests is therefore a crucial part of a journalist’s responsibilities, but can often be one of the most dangerous.  According to the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, nearly half of all press freedom…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

The Gambia v Facebook (2021)

In a discovery request, the US District Court held that Facebook must disclose de-platformed content and internal investigation documents relating to the incitement of ethnic hatred against the Rohingyas in Myanmar.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · North America · US · Nov 2022

Advanced Module 4: Privacy and Security Online (sub-Saharan Africa)

Provides an overview of the right to privacy, as it relates to issues such as data protection, surveillance, facial recognition, encryption, and online harassment.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Jun 2024