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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Advanced Module 5: Trends in Censorship by Private Actors

Provides an overview of the current ways in which non-state actors are facilitating online censorship.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Explaining the Issues: Internet Shutdowns

phonelink_lock Digital rights · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Oct 2020

Advanced Module 6: Litigating Digital Rights in Africa

Provides an overview of key concepts and procedural requirements and the stages of litigation at various regional courts.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Explaining the Issues: Criminal Libel

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Oct 2013

Herrera-Ulloa v Costa Rica (2004)

The Inter-American Court of Human Rights held that Costa Rica’s criminal defamation law violated the American Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Costa Rica · North America · Apr 2004

Emerging Trend: Internet Shutdowns

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

WASHLITE v Fox News (2020)

The Washington Superior Court found that Fox News’ repeated claims that COVID-19 was/is a hoax were protected under the freedom of expression protections of the First Amendment.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · North America · US · Apr 2020

Emerging Trend: Surveillance & Encryption

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

New York Times Co. v United States (1971)

The United States Supreme Court rejected a request for prior restraint on the basis that it may only be allowed in extreme circumstances, and that ‘security’ could not be provided by guarding state secrets at the expense of informed representative government.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · North America · US · Apr 1971

Emerging Trend: Intermediary Liability

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021