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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Radio Twist v Slovakia (2005)

The European Court of Human Rights held that a radio station had not violated the rights of persons who were recorded because of the context and content of the conversation being clearly political in nature, and the subject-matter being of general interest, and because of the context of how the recording came to be in…

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · Slovakia · Apr 2005

Emerging Trend: Surveillance & Encryption

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

10 Human Rights Organisations v United Kingdom (2018)

The European Court of Human Rights was faced with a matter regarding the British government’s power to engage in surveillance and whether its bulk interception regime was a violation of the right to privacy.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2018

Partners: How Human Rights Platform Has Used Strategic Litigation to Defend Press Freedom in Ukraine

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Europe · Ukraine · Dec 2020

Steel and Morris v United Kingdom (2005)

The European Court of Human Rights held that although the sum awarded in a defamation case was not objectively large, “it was very substantial when compared to the modest incomes and resources of the . . . applicant . . .”.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Europe · United Kingdom · Apr 2005

Explaining the Issues: Criminal Libel

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Oct 2013

Plaintiff X v PrimaDaNoi (2015)

Italy’s Supreme Court of Cassation held that the public interest in an article diminished after two and a half years, and that sensitive and private information should not be available to the public indefinitely.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Europe · Italy · Apr 2015

Emerging Trend: Intermediary Liability

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Kalda v Estonia (2016)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the right of the applicant — a prisoner — to freedom of expression had been violated through the refusal to grant him access to internet websites containing legal information, as this had breached his right to receive information.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Estonia · Europe · Apr 2016

Explaining the Issues: Internet Shutdowns

phonelink_lock Digital rights · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Oct 2020