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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Bhasin v Union of India; Azad v Union of India (2020)

The Supreme Court of India found that freedom of speech and expression and the freedom to practice any profession or occupation over the medium of the internet enjoys constitutional protection and that suspending internet services indefinitely is impermissible.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · India · Apr 2020

Manohar v. Union of India (2021)

The Supreme Court of India found that there was a prima facie case to create an Expert Committee to examine allegations of unauthorised surveillance and privacy breaches by the Indian government and foreign parties on Indian citizens using the Pegasus spyware.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · India · Nov 2022

Emerging Trend: Surveillance & Encryption

In the digital world, in which our communications increasingly occur online or through digital channels and where we leave an ever-growing trail of data in the wake of so many of our daily activities, digital surveillance is a growing trend and a potential threat to freedom of expression and privacy.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

State Controlled Media Regulation is a Threat to Press Freedom: Media Defence Files an Amicus Brief to European Court of Human Rights

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Mar 2017

Module 9: National Security (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

“National security” is a common justifications offered by states for limiting freedom of expression by journalists, bloggers, and media organs. However, it has the potential to be relied upon to quell dissent and cover up state abuses. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Asia · Sep 2022

Maria Ressa: Award-Winning Journalist Facing 6 Years in Prison

local_police Cybercrimes · Asia · Philippines · Jun 2020

OOO Flavus v Russia (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the indiscriminate blocking of entire online news websites without giving notice of the specific offending material was a breach of the right to freedom of expression.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · Russian Federation · Nov 2022

Emerging Trend: Intermediary Liability

The rise of the ‘big tech giants’ has occasioned dramatic changes in the global information eco-system, including the ways in which people access news and public information, and how the news media generates income and connects with their audiences. It has also created complications with how illegal or rights-violating content, such as hate speech, is dealt with.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Justice K.S. Puttaswamy and Another v Union of India and Others (2017)

The Supreme Court of India declared that the right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty, and as part of the fundamental freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution of India.

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Asia · India · Apr 2017

Module 10: Violence Against Journalists (South and Southeast Asia Module Series)

Violence against journalists, especially in retaliation for their work, poses a serious threat to freedom of expression, whether it takes the form of physical or online attacks. Part of the Modules on Litigating Freedom of Expression and Digital Rights in South and Southeast Asia.

Asia · Sep 2022