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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Kharitonov v Russia (2020)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the blocking of a website as a consequence of a blocking order against another website which had the same IP address was a violation of the right to freedom of expression and information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Apr 2020

Ahmet Yıldırım v Turkey (2012)

The European Court of Human Rights held that a blocking order on a website hosting platform produced arbitrary effects, and that blocking segments of the internet for whole populations or segments of the public can never be justified.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Asia · Europe · Turkey · Apr 2012

Media Defence Intervenes in European Court Case on Media’s Right to Access and Report from Defamation Proceedings

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Mar 2018

Emerging Trend: Internet Shutdowns

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Başkaya and Okçuoğlu v Turkey (1999)

The European Court of Human Rights found that the convictions and sentencing of an author and publisher on charges of disseminating propaganda against the indivisibility of the state were disproportionate to the aims pursued, and there not necessary in a democratic society.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Asia · Turkey · Apr 1999

Defamation Liability Should Not Extend to Publishers for Hyperlinking – Media Defence Files Intervention to European Court

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Apr 2017

Emerging Trend: Surveillance & Encryption

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Savva Terentyev v Russia (2018)

The European Court of Human Rights held that the imposition of a suspended sentence on an individual for posting a provocative comment online that criticized police abuse amounted to a violation of the right to freedom of expression.

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Asia · Russian Federation · Apr 2018

State Controlled Media Regulation is a Threat to Press Freedom: Media Defence Files an Amicus Brief to European Court of Human Rights

thumb_down_alt Hate speech · Asia · Europe · Russian Federation · Mar 2017

Advanced Module 1: General Overview of Trends in Digital Rights Globally

Sets out trends and expected developments in the context of the right of access to information, particularly trends that pose a threat to access to information.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020