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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Burundi Journalists’ Union v Attorney General of the Republic of Burundi (2013)

Following a challenge brought by Burundi Journalists Union, the East African Court of Justice confirmed that parts of Burundi’s Press Law placed an impermissible restriction on journalists by prohibiting them from distributing certain types of information.

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · Burundi · Apr 2013

Reporting at Protests: Factsheet

Protests can be newsworthy events, and in some cases can determine the political or social course of a country for years to come.  Covering protests is therefore a crucial part of a journalist’s responsibilities, but can often be one of the most dangerous.  According to the U.S. Press Freedom Tracker, nearly half of all press freedom…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021

Module de synthèse 9 : Sécurité nationale

La « sécurité nationale » est l’une des justifications les plus courantes offertes par les États pour limiter la liberté d’expression des journalistes, des blogueurs et des organes de presse.  Cependant, on peut s’appuyer sur elle pour réprimer la dissidence et dissimuler les abus de l’État.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Africa · Apr 2021

Summary Module 5: Defamation

Defamation is frequently used to unjustly stifle dissent. However, it can provide a genuine remedy for those harmed by the statements or actions of others.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Jan 2021

Nubian Rights Forum and Others v The Hon. Attorney General and Others (2020)

The High Court in Kenya held that a new digital identity system could only be implemented subject to the improvement of the existing data protection laws.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Apr 2020

Engaging advocates to advance press freedom standards in the Gambia

dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Gambia · Mar 2018

Mapping Digital Rights and Online Freedom of Expression Litigation in East, West and Southern Africa (2021)

The report begins with an overview of the digital rights landscape and an introduction to the research methodology, before delving into recent developments in seven themes of particular relevance at present — (i) defamation; (ii) national security, counter-terrorism and public order laws; (iii) laws restricting online content and access; (iv) internet shutdowns; (v) cybercrime legislation; (vi) media regulation and newsgathering activities; and (vii) data protection.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Aug 2021

Advanced Module 6: Litigating Digital Rights in Africa

Provides an overview of key concepts and procedural requirements and the stages of litigation at various regional courts.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Sir Dawda K. Jawara v The Gambia (2000)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights confirmed that in circumstances where it is effective and sufficient to redress the complaint, a domestic remedy may be available to a petitioner.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Gambia · Apr 2000

Emerging Trend: Surveillance & Encryption

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Apr 2021