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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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Mukong v Cameroon (1994)

The United Nations Human Rights Commission held that the arrest of a journalist on national security grounds for criticising the President and government of Cameroon was unjustified and a violation of the journalist’s freedom of expression.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · Africa · Cameroon · Apr 1994

Law Society of South Africa and Others v President of the Republic of South Africa and Others (2018)

The Constitutional Court of South Africa ordered the President to withdraw his signature from the 2014 SADC Protocol, as his signature to the Protocol was found to be unconstitutional, unlawful and irrational.

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · South Africa · Apr 2018

Module de synthèse 5 : Diffamation

La diffamation est fréquemment utilisée pour étouffer injustement la dissidence. Néanmoins, elle peut constituer un véritable recours pour les personnes lésées par les déclarations ou les actions d’autrui.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Apr 2021

Summary Module 1: Key Principles of International Law and Freedom of Expression

Overview of the right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · thumb_down_alt Hate speech · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Jan 2021

Peta v Minister of Law, Constitutional Affairs and Human Rights (2018)

The Constitutional Court of Lesotho struck down the provisions of the Penal Code relating to criminal defamation stating that they violated the right to freedom of expression as protected in the Lesotho Constitution.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Lesotho · Apr 2018

Landmark Judgment: ECOWAS Court Finds Togo Violated FoE with Internet Shutdown

phonelink_lock Digital rights · portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Togo · Jun 2020

Defending the Media in Defamation Cases: Factsheet

Defamation can be described in a number of ways – but is broadly understood as the communication of a false statement that unjustly causes harm or detriment to legal or natural person’s reputation.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · South America · Sep 2020

Advanced Module 2: Restricting Access and Content

Provides an overview of the current mechanisms through which access to the internet and access to content is restricted.

portable_wifi_off Restricting Internet access & online content · pan_tool Censorship by private actors · Africa · Asia · Europe · North America · Oceania · South America · Aug 2020

Social and Economic Rights Action Centre and Another v Nigeria (2002)

The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights argued that although the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights does not contain an express provision on the right to privacy, the right can – and should – be read into the African Charter through to the right to respect for life, the right to dignity,…

fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · Africa · Nigeria · Apr 2002

“The training has advanced our knowledge in an area that is lacking in East Africa at a time when these issues are most acute”

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Rwanda · Tanzania · Uganda · Jan 2018