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Each theme contains useful resources for lawyers on freedom of expression, click below to get started.

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Freedom of expression

An overview of the multi-faceted right to freedom of expression and how it is protected under international law.

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Digital rights

Understanding digital rights is crucial to protecting human rights, as little of our lives today is immune from the forces of technology and the internet.

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Restricting Internet access & online content

An overview of the ways in which access to the internet and online content are restricted around the world.

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Defamation & reputation

An overview of freedom of expression issues in the law, including how defamation is treated in domestic and international law.

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Privacy, security & data protection

An overview of the right to privacy, data protection, and protecting freedom of expression in a digital world.

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Cybercrimes

Describes the different types of cybercrimes, tracks the trends, and evaluates how cybercrimes are dealt with in international law.

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Hate speech

An overview of hate speech and how it is dealt with both under domestic and international law.

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Censorship by private actors

An overview of the ways in which access to content and freedom of expression online are restricted by private actors.

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False news, misinformation & propaganda

An overview of false news, misinformation and propaganda, including causes and potential solutions..

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Litigating freedom of expression

An overview of the various rights and concepts which encompass digital rights.

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National Media Ltd and Others v Bogoshi (1998)

The Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa developed the defence of reasonable publication as protection from a claim of defamation.

local_fire_department Defamation & reputation · Africa · South Africa · Apr 1998

“The training has advanced our knowledge in an area that is lacking in East Africa at a time when these issues are most acute”

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Rwanda · Tanzania · Uganda · Jan 2018

Media Defence Announces First Round of Funded Partners Working On Digital Rights in Africa

phonelink_lock Digital rights · Africa · Oct 2020

Module de synthèse 9 : Sécurité nationale (Afrique subsaharienne)

La « sécurité nationale » est l’une des justifications les plus courantes offertes par les États pour limiter la liberté d’expression des journalistes, des blogueurs et des organes de presse.  Cependant, on peut s’appuyer sur elle pour réprimer la dissidence et dissimuler les abus de l’État.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · Africa · Apr 2021

Disinformation and Online Harassment against Women Journalists in sub-Saharan Africa

The rise of digital platforms, online news reporting and social media has fuelled disinformation and online harassment, often targeting women journalists. Disinformation refers to information that is “falsely and deliberately created to harm a person, social group, organisation or country.” Often, this takes the form of spreading lies about a journalist’s character or work and…

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Kenya · Nigeria · South Africa · Oct 2023

Attorney General of Uganda and Another v Awadh and Others (2012)

The East African Court of Justice held that it would not adopt a flexible approach to the requirement to file references within two months of the alleged violation (the two-month rule).

gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Uganda · Apr 2012

Mapping Digital Rights and Online Freedom of Expression in East, West and Southern Africa (2019)

This report maps the current landscape in respect of digital rights and online freedom of expression in
East, West and Southern Africa. It looks at the trends regarding law and policy developments, as well
as recent litigation, within these regions. The report focuses on 18 countries – 6 per region – and tracks
the recent developments that have taken place in these countries.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · phonelink_lock Digital rights · gavel Litigating freedom of expression · Africa · Mar 2019

Summary Module 8: ‘False news,’ Misinformation and Propaganda (sub-Saharan Africa)

While acknowledging the social ills occasioned by false news and misinformation, courts and international actors maintain that general and over-broad provisions which criminalise false news and misinformation violate the right to freedom of expression.

pan_tool Censorship by private actors · dvr False news, misinformation & propaganda · Africa · Jan 2021

Brown v Economic Freedom Fighters (2019)

The South Gauteng High Court in South Africa held that the failure of a political party to condemn its supporters’ harassment of and threats against a journalist violated the South African Electoral Code.

record_voice_over Freedom of expression · fingerprint Privacy, security & data protection · local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · South Africa · Nov 2022

Andare v Attorney General of Kenya (2015)

The High Court of Kenya emphasised that the state has a duty to demonstrate that cybercrimes laws are permissible in a free and democratic society, to establish the relationship between the limitation and its purpose, and to show that there were no less restrictive means to achieve the purpose intended.

local_police Cybercrimes · Africa · Kenya · Apr 2015