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    Conclusion

    Module 2: Restricting Access and Content

    The internet is a site of struggle for the advancement of human rights.  Restricting access to the internet, either through internet shutdowns, blocking and filtering or imposing regulatory restrictions or facilitating DDoS attacks limits people’s fundamental human rights.  The promotion, protection and enjoyment of human rights on the internet is well established, and restricting of access to the internet, by states or non-state actors, violates human rights and can only be justified under very narrow circumstances.

    It is comforting to observe that despite the rise of restrictive conduct, the international community, civil society actors and individuals are fighting to advance freedom of expression and digital rights.  Fortunately, there are strong legal foundations that allow for progressive and dynamic solutions to these contemporary challenges.